Month: March 2020

Datura(Dhaturo): Know its cultivation practices, uses and medicinal value

             Datura

Introduction:

Datura, a wildly growing plant from Solanaceae family, commonly known as Jimson weed or Devil’s snare is attributed with both poisonous and medicinal values. It contains varieties of toxic alkaloids such as atropine, hyoscyamine, and scopolamine. In Ayurveda, it has been used for curing various ailments including wounds, inflammation, rheumatism, sciatica, swellings, fever, and asthma.

  1. Classification:

Family: – Solanaceae

Genus: – Datura

Species: -D.stramonium L.

Common Names:Thorn Apple/ Jimson weed/ Mad apple/ Moonflower

Local name: Dhaturo

  1. Origin and Distribution:
  • Datura stramoniumis native to the eastern part of Central America, Mexico or the southern part of the United States
  • It has been introduced in many tropical, subtropical and even temperate regions of India,Bangladesh,Pakistan,Myanmar, Sri Lanka,USA,and Europe& Africa.
  • A naturalized weed in many African and Asian countries, but is probably seriously
  1. Plant Description:
  • Annual shrub that grows to about 1.5m tall mainly in the summer months (July – October).
  • Has green to purplish stems of this plant are stout and hollow.
  • Leaves simple, ovate, a coarsely serrate margin, measure 5-20 cm, acuminate at their tips.
  • Large, white, funnel shaped; axillary borne, symmetrical flowers grow to about 5-10cm long; petals 5 in number.
  • 5 stamens of equal length attached to the corolla near the base, and a long style with a 2-lobed stigma
  • Its fruits are large, thorny pods filled with seeds. Fruits open into 4 compartments when ripe.
  • Seeds numerous, yellowish brown to black, flattened, ovoid, elaiosome large, endosperm present.
  1. Cultivation:
  2. Climate and Soil
  • Grows well in areas having average minimum temperature 10-12 ⁰C in winter and 25-27 ⁰C in summer. It requires a well distributed rainfall of 50-100 cm/year. Grows up to the altitude of 2500 above sea level.
  • It can tolerate a range of soil types including sandy and loamy however well-drained loamy soil with regular moisture and high humus content is preferable.  pH ranges from neutral to very alkaline.
  • Datura prefers rich, calcareous Adding nitrogen fertilizerto the soil will increase the concentration of alkaloids present in the plant
  1. Propagation
  • Generally cultivated from seed sown either directly in the field or in a nursery bed.
  • Seeds are sown in open in May, in drill 3 feet apart, barely covered. Sown thinly, as the plants attain a good size and grow freely from seed. Thin out the young plants to a distance of 12 to 15 inches between each plant in the drill. The soil should be kept free from weeds in the early stages.
  • If the seed is sown in a nursery, seedlings are transplanted when 8–12 cm tall
  • Normal spacing is 70–100 cm
  1. Harvesting and Yield:
  • Deflowering increases the total alkaloid content in the leaves.
  • The leaves should be gathered when the plant is in full bloom and carefully dried. They are generally harvested in late summer, generally In August, the crop being cut by the sickle on a fine day in the morning, after the sun has dried off the dew, and the leaves stripped from the stem and dried carefully as quickly as possible,
  • The thorny capsules are gathered from the plants when they are quite ripe, but still green. They should then be dried in the sun for a few days, when they will split open and the seeds can be readily shaken out. The seeds can then be dried, either in the sun or by artificial heat. 
  • Yield: – 10.5 – 14.5 tons of fresh plant material and 750 – 1,200 kg of seeds is found in a hectare of land
  1. Chemical Evaluation:
  • The principle tropanealkaloids presents are: hyoscyamine, atropine and scopolamine and traces of scopine, belladodine; also contains coumarins (scopoletine, umbellipheron), 5% tannins and small amount of essential oils.
  • Total alkaloid content of the leaves is 0.426%, which is mainly atropine. The seeds contain 0.426% alkaloids, which is mainly hyoscyamine. The roots contain 0.35% hyoscyamine.
  1. Key Action:
  2. Medicinal Uses:
  • In modern medicine, it is used in tincture iodine, to treat bronchial asthma: relieves spams of bronchial muscles and Parkinson’s diseases.
  • It is antimuscarinic, hypnotic, analgesic, gastrointestinal and urinary antispasmodiccauses bradycardia at very low doses and higher doses induce tachycardia.
  • Leaves: The burning leaf smoke of datura is good to treat asthma and bronchitis, to treat heart problems like palpitations and hypertension, vapor of datura leaves infusion is used to relieve arthritis such as rheumatism and gout, paste of roasted leaves is applied over the area to relieve pain, datura leaves juice is used to treat earache. Boils can also be overcome by applying datura leaves as poultice.
  • Externally, the jimson seeds are used in treating of fistulas and abscesses. The oil extract from the datura seed is used to treat baldness and stimulate growth of hair.
  • The seedsimmersed in water or milk can also increase circulation to the genitals, which increases fertility and the health of the sperm.
  • There is a decent amount of ascorbic acidfound in datura, and additionally, the high concentration of antioxidants contributes to the strength of the immune system. 
  • It stimulates the production of white blood cells and neutralized various free radicals throughout various systems of the body.
  • The ethanol extract from datura leaves are used as acaricidal, repellent and oviposition deterrent properties against mites, also used as repellent against larva and mosquito.

Aloe Vera: Cultivation Practices, Medicinal Values and Other Uses

                  Aloe Vera

Introduction:

Aloe Vera is the oldest medicinal plant ever known and the most applied medicinal plant worldwide. Extracts of Aloe vera is a proven skin healer. Aloe vera help to soothe skin injuries affected by burning, skin irritations, cuts and insect bites, and its bactericidal properties relieve itching and skin swellings. Aloe vera Gel contains a large range of vitamins – even vitamin B12, Vitamin A, contains B-Group vitamins, Vitamin C, Vitamin E and folic acid. Aloe vera Gel contains important ingredients including 19 of the 20 amino acids needed by the human body and seven of the eight essential ones that just cannot be made.

Classification:

Binomial Name: Aloe Vera (Aloe = a shining bitter substance; Vera = true.)

Nepali name: Ghiukumari

English name: Burn plant

Kingdom: Plantae

Family: Xanthorrhoeace

Genus: Aloe

Species: vera

Classification: Monocotyledons

Origin and Distribution:

Native to East and South Africa, The Canary Island and Spain. South East Asia, India, China, Nepal, Africa, Europe, Australia, West Indies.

Plant Description:

Aloe Vera is a stem less or very short-stemmed succulent (juicy) plant growing to 60–100 cm tall.

  • Leaves: Thick and fleshy, green to grey-green

Leaves consist of four layers:

  • Rind: The outer part of protective covering
  • Sap: A layer of bitter fluid, which helps to protect the plant from animals
  • Mucilage gel: The inner part of the leaf that is filleted out to make Aloe gel.
  • Inner gel: It contains about eight amino acid.
  • Inflorescence: Racemose
  • Flowers: Pedicellate, bisexual
  • Flowering period: July to September
  • Habitat: Succulent
  1. Cultivation:
  2. Climate and Soil:
  3. Tropical and sub-tropical, grown in warm, humid climate, sub temperate also.
  4. Good sunshine, 150 -200 cm rainfall/year.
  • Frost and hailstorms may cause damage the plant.
  1. Dry climate in preferred.
  2. Sandy loamy soil is the best suited for it.

Also thrives in slightly acidic soil.

  1. pH up to 8.5.
  2. Propagation:  It can be propagated root suckers, rhizome cuttings.
  3. Preparation of land:
  • 1-2 cross ploughing; 1 harrowing and leveling.
  • The soil is thoroughly free from the weeds.
  1. Sowing Season:
  • March – April, May-June – July, August -October.
  • It can be planted throughout the year.
  • Planting:
  • Medium sized root suckers are chosen and carefully dug out without damaging the parent plant at the base and can be directly planted in the prepared field.
  • About 15 -18 cm long root suckers or rhizome cuttings are planted in such a way that two-third portion of the root suckers or rhizome cuttings should be under the ground.
  • After harvest the rhizome can be dug out and made in to 5-6cm length cuttings with minimum of 2-3 nodes from matured stem.
  • These rhizome cuttings need to be planted is the Nursery beds or containers initially and soon after sprouting, they can be transplanted.
  • Moistened soil at planting time.
  • The seedlings should be protected from stray molds, harmful insects and certain fungi..
  1. Set rate or root sucker rate:
  • 12000 to 17000 sets/ha or about 20,000 – 25,000 of seedlings / ha
  1. Spacing:
  • Rows x Set – 50x25cm or 1m x 45cm apart or 60 x 30cm or 60 x 45cm.
  1. Manures and fertilizers:
  • 8-10q of FYM / Compost /ha.
  • 60:40:40kg of NPK / ha.
  • Supplement NPK should be applied near the root system.
  • Ammonium nitrate usually beneficial to Aloes.
  • 150 kg of NPK/ ha is also recommended
  • Irrigation: 4-5 irrigations. In dry season 8 -10 irrigations. Soon after planting the field should be irrigated. Water should not be allowed to stagnate near the plant.
  • Intercultural operations:
  • 3-4 weeding and hoeing.
  • Earthling up is needed because the aloes possess shallow root.
  • Weed should be plucked or cut and spread them as mulch between the lines of aloe.
  1. Diseases: Leaf spot, Alternaria alternate, Fusarium solani.
  2. Insect’s pests: Cut worms; Beetles.
  3. Harvesting and Yield:
  • Aloe pop take 18-24 months to fully mature.
  • Harvested 4 times a year.
  • At the rate of 3 leaves cut from each plant about 12 – 14 leaves are the harvest / plant / year.
  • The leaves are cut without causing damage to the plant.
  • Aloe plant can be removed manually or with the help of disc harrow or cultivator.
  • Average yield 120000-180000 kg/ha annually.
  • In good condition it gives 20 tons/ha.
  • The leaves cut off close to the plant are placed immediately, with the cut end downwards in a v-shaped wooden trough.
  • The trough is set on a sharp incline so that the juice, which trickles from the leaves very rapidly flows down its sides; and finally escapes by a hole at its lower end into a vessel placed beneath.
  • It takes about a quarter of an hour to cut leaves enough to fill a trough.
  • It gives a commercial yield from the second year up to the age of five years, after which it needs replanting.
  1. Chemical Evaluation:
  • The principal constituent is Aloin‘.
  • Aloe contains cathartic anthrax – glycosides and its active principal ranging from 4.5 to 25% of Aloin.
  • Other chemical constituents are; Aloesin, Aloesone, Barbaloin, Aloeemodin, Aloetic acid, Homonataloin, Choline, Chrysamminjo acid, Galacturonic acid, mucopolysaccharides, free anthraquinones and resins.
  • Vitamins namely A, B1, B2, B6, B12, C and E are available in Aloe vera.
  1. Key Action: detoxifier, antiseptic and tonic for the nervous system
  2. Medicinal Uses:
  • Aloe Vera is good for irritated or inflamed skin.
  • Aloe Vera helps in speeding up the process of healing of burns and other wounds.
  • Aloe Vera is good for hydrating, rejuvenating and toning for the skin.
  • Aloe Vera is used on facial tissues where it is promoted as a moisturizer and anti-irritant to reduce chafing of the nose.
  • Cosmetic companies commonly add sap or other derivatives from Aloe Vera to products such as makeup, tissues, moisturizers, soaps, sunscreens, incense, shaving cream, or shampoos.
  • Parts of plants are chewed to purify the blood. But they should not be brought into contact with teeth for long time, else, the enamel of teeth erodes causing sensitivity.
  • The flesh is boiled with black coffee and nine very strong cups drunk to induce abortion.
  • The juice of the leaves mixed with a little opium and applied to the forehead relieves headache.
  • Aloe Vera gel has antifungal, anti-bacterial and anti-viral effects and helps to heal minor wounds.
  • Liver disorders – Aloe juice with turmeric powder should be taken twice a day.
  • Difficult urination – Continuous diluted aloe juice should be taken time to time to alleviate this condition.
  • In wounds – Boil aloe leaves and take the fleshy part of the leaves over wounds.
  • As a cosmetic – Aloe is one of the best-known moisturizers and used in creams and shampoos.
  • Jaundice – A few drops of aloe juice is installed in the nostrils to control jaundice.

Orchid (Sunakhari): Cultivation Practices, Post-harvest Handling and Uses

             

 

Introduction

Common name: Orchid

Botanical name: Many genus and species like Vanilla planifolia, Dendrobium nobile etc.

Family: Orchidaceae

Nepali name: Sungava, Sunakhari

 

Orchids are the loveliest and wondrous among all the flowering plants in the world. The exquisite beauty of flowers, brilliance of colors, remarkable range of sizes, manifold shapes, variation in the form, attractive habits and wide distribution in the earth have aroused the highest admiration for those charming plants throughout the world. These extraordinary plants belong to the very large and diverse family Orchidaceae. The orchids with their 35000 species and over 800 genera, constitute the largest family among the flowering plants and are the only major cut flower crop commercially grown and as a pot plant. In Nepal 350-500 species of orchids are found distributed in different eco-zones.

 

Uses

  1. Orchids are the most fascinating and beautiful of all flowers so they are used in indoor decoration and gardens.
  2. It is a multimillion-dollar business in the world.
  3. Orchid like Dendrobium nobile has some medicinal value as an antipyretic and tonic.
  4. Leaves of some orchid like Aoectochillus are used as vegetables.
  5. Dried and cured leaves and pseudo bulbs are sometimes used to prepare beverage and tea.
  6. Stem of Dendrobium spp. are used for weaving baskets.

 

Classification

  1. Based on growth habits
  2. Monopodial orchids
  3. One single main stem and continuous to grow indefinitely.
  4. Results in the pyramidal forms of the growth of the growth typical of conifers, e.g. Vanda, Rhynchostylis spp., Phalaenopsis etc.
  • This is also known as one footed orchid.
  1. Sympodial orchids
  2. In this, the growth in which the apical bud withers at the end of growing season.
  3. Growth is continuing by the lateral bud in the following season.
  • Bear pseudo bulbs and grow sideways.
  1. Known as many footed orchids.

e.g. Dendrobium spp., Cymbidium spp., Cattleya, Vanilla etc.

  1. Based on Habitat
  2. Epiphytes

They grow on the branches and stem of the trees and produce epiphytic roots. They absorb nutrients from the branches and stem of the tree but do not suck the sap of the plant, e.g. Vanda, Arides, Cymbidium etc.

  1. Saprophytes

Grow and survive on dead organic matter or body of the plant, e.g. Epipogon

  1. Lithophytes

Grow on rocks, e.g. Lipapis spp.

  1. Terrestrial

Grow on ground, e.g. Cattleya spp.

 

Climatic and environmental requirements

 

Temperature

Cool orchids (10-13C): Cymbidium, Paphiopedilum

Intermediate orchids (13-18C): Cattleya, Laelia, Miltonia, Oncidium

Warm orchids (15.5-26.5C): Vanda, Rhynchostylis, Phalaenopsis, Dendrobium

Light

Almost all orchids require 2400 foot candle except 2400 foot candle except Paphiopedilum do best in low light intensity i.e.800-1200 foot candle.

Photoperiod

Eight hours light induced early flowering which additional light delay flowering but enhance vegetative growth. Flower initiation and development in cattleyas takes place under short days.

Humidity

High RH (i.e.80%) is generally preferred by most of the orchids at daytime. Cymbidiums prefer RH between 40-70% in the greenhouse. Flower buds of Cattleya are more susceptible to infection at higher RH.

Air

Free circulation of fresh air in the green house is necessary to maintain the uniformity of temperature.

 

Multiplication of orchids

Division

Dividing large clumps to smaller clumps after they have reached a good size (10-12 number) e.g. Cattleya, Laelia, Cymbidium, Dendrobium etc.

 

Division is done when flowering is over during April-May.

Seeds

Seed germination in orchids may be symbiotic or non-symbiotic. In the symbiotic process seeds require fungal association for their germination while non-symbiotic method involves the germination of seeds in an agar medium supplemented with various nutrients.

 

Similarly, orchids can be propagated by cutting and layering and meristem and shoot culture.

 

Orchid House

Under controlled condition, orchids can be grown in specially designed orchidarium or orchid houses, running north to south. Orchid houses can be made of materials like split bamboos, glass, shade, nets etc. For maintaining humidity, tank filled with water is placed in the house at the center, or artificial fogging nozzles are made.

 

Potting media

Plastic pot is preferred over mud pots as they render moisture for a longer interval. Monopodial orchids perform well in media containing chunks of hardwood charcoal while sympodial orchids in tree fern fiber media.

 

Manures and fertilizers

During vegetative growth, large amount of nitrogen is required while during flowering nitrogen content should be reduced and phosphate must be increased. Fertilization should be carried out only when the plant is actively producing new leaves. During active growing season, it needs heavy feeding regularly with 20:20:20 NPK at rate of 56 g per 380 liters of water. Fertilizer should be applied bimonthly.

 

Pruning

The initial spikes are very small and are pinched off to improve the quality of next upcoming spike. The dead spikes are cut from the bottom. Stalks that turn yellow are completely removed from the main stem. Pruning helps the plant produce more flowers during the next season.

 

Harvesting

In general, orchid flower do not mature until 3-4 days after they open. Flower harvested before maturity may wilt soon. So, they must be harvested when the flowers are fully matured and their tissues are hardened.

 

Post-harvest practices

After harvesting spikes, they should be immediately dipped into water and stored at temperature of 5-70C. The flowers should be packed in airtight, waterproof, strong boxes. Wet cotton must be kept in the cut of flower stem wrapping with polythene wrapper. Foliar application of aluminum chloride at 500ppm,ammonium molybdate at 100ppm or boric acid at 1000ppm lengthened the vase life.

Mango: Physiological Disorders and Management

MANGO

Introduction

Scientific name: Mangifera indica

Family: Anacardiaceae

Origin: India, Bangladesh, Myanmar

Mode of pollination: Cross-pollination

Pollinator: Housefly

Fruit: Drupe

Climate and Soil

  • Tropical fruit can be grown up to 1100masl. Best grown up to 500m.
  • Ideal temperature: 24-27 degree centigrade.
  • Bright sunny days and moderate humidity required.
  • High humidity during fruiting period causes powdery mildew and anthracnose.
  • Can grow from Alluvial to Lateritic soil, except Black Cotton soil. pH: 5.5 -7.5

Varieties

Very early varieties: Bangalora, Banganpalli

Early varieties: Bombay green, Bombay yellow, Himsagar, Kesar, Swarnarekha

Mid-season varieties: Krishnabhog, Alphonso, Langra, Zardalu, Dashehari

Late varieties: Neelum, Amrapali, Kaitki, Fajri, Mulgoa, Samarbahisth chausa

Fibrous varieties: Sukul, Baramasia

Fibreless varieties: Langra, Dashehari, Zardalu, Ranipasand

Moderately fibrous varieties: Fazli, Sipia

Regular bearing varieties: Amrapali, Neelum, Bangalora, Mallika

Planting

  • During Rainy season (August-September; at evening).
  • Pit dimension: 1m3 pits
  • Spacing: 8× 10m (HDP in Amrapali 2.5m * 2.5 m)

Flowering and fruiting

Flowering:  February- March

  • Generally, 8-10 months old shoots produced in spring and early summer produce flowers.
  • Mango tree produces blossoms and bears fruits mostly from terminal buds of its shoots.
  • Duration of flowering is 25 days
  • Normally 99% hermaphrodite flowers drop.
  • 15% of perfect flowers set fruit among which only 0.1- 0.25 % reaches maturity.

Problems and Physiological Disorders in Mango

  1. Fruit Drop

Natural drop of hermaphrodite flowers and young shoots are high accounting about 99% or more in Mango. Only 13-23% of the perfect flowers set fruit and only 0.1-0.25% reaches maturity. There are three different phases of fruit drop:

  1. Pin-head drop:

Causes:

  • Lack of pollination.
  • Low stigmatic receptivity.
  • Defective perfect flowers having defective embryo sac development at anthesis.
  • Poor pollen transference due to insufficient pollination agents and due to rain or high humidity and cloudy weather.
  1. Post-setting drop:

Causes:

  • Competition among developing fruitlets for nutrition.
  • Hormonal imbalance (deficiency of Auxin, GA, and Cytokinin coupled with a high level of inhibitors).
  1. May drop:

Causes:

  • Drought or lack of available soil moisture.
  • Unfavorable climatic conditions during fruit development, e.g., wind and hailstorm.
  • High incidence of serious diseases like Powdery Mildew and Anthracnose and pests like Hoppers and Mealy-bug.

              Control of Fruit Drop:

  • Timely control of insect pests and diseases.
  • Cross pollination of varieties must be assured by avoiding isolated planting of the single varieties.
  • Regular irrigation during fruit development period.
  • Application of PGR like NAA, 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, GA3 @ 20ppm in last week of April and plant nutrients like Urea and Borax.
  1. Black Tip:
    • It is due to gases and coal fumes of brick kilns. The effect has been noticed up to 212m away from kilns.
    • It is characterized by the appearance of depressed spot of yellowing tissue at the distal end of fruits, which gradually increase in size, becomes brown and finally black. Such fruits never reach maturity and drop earlier.

Control:

  • Spraying of 0.6% Borax; before, during and after flowering.
  • Brick kilns should be restricted preferably 1.5 km to east and west and 0.75 km to the north and south of the orchard.
  1. Scorching of Leaves:
  • Brick red color appears towards the tip, along the margin of old leaves and subsequent collapsing of these tissues.
  • It is caused due to chloride ion toxicity and it decreases the potassium level in leaves.

Control:

  • Potassium sulphate should be used instead of Potassium chloride.
  • Irrigation water having high chlorine content must be avoided.
  1. Spongy Tissue:
  • Non-edible, yellowish, spongy-like patch with or without air pockets develop in the mesocarp of the fruit. It is specific in Alfonso cultivar.
  • Fruits remain unripe because of unhydrolyzed starch due to physiological and bio-chemical disturbance caused by heat in mature fruit at pre and post-harvest stage.

Control:

  • Harvesting mango when they are 75% mature rather than fully matured, reduces this disorder.
  • Mulching to reduce moisture stress.
  • Uses of wind break.
  • Sod culture.
  1. Biennial Bearing:
  • Biennial bearing is synonymous to alternate bearing which indicates yield variation in alternate years, i.e. one year of optimum or heavy fruiting is followed by a year of little or no fruiting.
  • Sometimes, periodicity of cropping and irregular bearing are erroneously used to describe the phenomenon of alternate bearing. However, irregular bearing and periodicity of cropping does not follow a systematic pattern like biennial/alternate bearing but an optimum yield is obtained only once in a number of years.
  • The tendency of irregular bearing is due to the poor management of orchard whereas biennial bearing is governed by genetic makeup.

Causes:

  • Climatic factors:

Climatic factors do not cause basic biennial bearing but their adverse effect converts an on year into off year directly or by promoting the incidence of various diseases and pests. Similarly, frequent frost or low temperature during flowering period adversely affects the fruit set.

  • Growth pattern:

In most of the biennial bearing varieties, there will be no new growth after fruit harvest. Poor flowering in off year is the result of poor vegetative growth in the on year and the profuse flowering in the on year is the is the result of profuse vegetative growth in the off year.

  • Carbohydrate-Nitrogen ratio:

Higher C:N ratio in the shoots favors flower bud initiation in mango.

  • Hormonal control of flower initiation:

The presence of high level of growth substance like auxins, gibberellins induced more number of flowers whereas decrease in this substance reduces the percentage of the flower bud initiation. Exogenous application of GA reduces the flower bud initiation.

  • Cultural practices:

Irregularity of bearing in mango is a cultural problem which can be corrected by influencing nutritive condition and other management practices.

  • Crop load:

Generally, moderate blossoming is one of the chief conditions of annual fruit bearing in fruit tree. The biennial bearing habit can be minimized by undertaking some measures that reduces the number of fruit buds setting into fruits.

Measures to overcome:

  • De-blossoming and Thinning of fruits:

The excessive no. of flowers or fruit-lets should be thinned out before pea-size stage. The removal may be done by hand or by chemical spray (de-blossoming with 3-chloroisopropyl-N-phenyl carbonate @ 250-300 ppm).

  • Pruning:

It is performed for the removal of old shoots and diseased portion of branches to facilitate normal vegetative growth and stimulation of flowering buds.

  • Cultural practices:

Planting wind break, regular ploughing, optimum manuring at appropriate time, ringing and adequate irrigation helps to overcome biennial bearing.

  • Smudging:

Creation of gaseous atmosphere around orchard may also be helpful for flower initiation.

  • Uses of PGR:

Spray of NAA, 2,4,5-T and Ethrel (200 ppm) favor flower initiation.

  • Uses of regular bearing varieties:

Mallika, Amrapali, Neelam, Bangalora, Red small etc.

 

 

 

 

 

Rose: Know the Cultivation Practices, Uses and Post-harvest Handling

Introduction

Common name:rose,derived from Greek word rhedon which means excellent fragrance

Scientific name:Rosa chinensis

Family:Rosaceae

Also known as queen of flowers.

Signifies love

 

Uses

Aesthetic purpose

Rose is the best known and most popular of all the garden flowers throughout the world.It is famous for its shape,color and fragrance.So it is widely used for decorative purpose.

Cut flower

Rose is commercially used as cut flower.

Perfume making

Roses have very strong and delicious scent.So roses are widely used in perfume industries.

Medicinal and cosmetics

Roses have great medicinal values as ear ache,pimple,ringworm and stomach ache can be cured by rose juice.Roses have anti-inflammatory,antibacterial and astrigent value.Rose extracts are rich in vitamin C and vitamin E.So they are also used in cosmetics.

Cultivation practices

Soil

Rose plant requires sandy loam soil rich in organic matter with pH value of 5.5 to 6.5.Rose plants are sensitive to water logging so are planted in raised beds with proper drainage.Slyvox 0.5ml per liter is found excellent for soil treatment.

Temperature

Humid and moderate temperature ranging from 15-28 C is considered ideal for rose cultivation in tropical and sub tropical climatic condition.Higher temperature causes increase in number of flowers;however it reduces quality of flower.Similarly lower temperature produces blind shoots and also induces attacks of diseases.

Light

Rose requires bright sunny condition for minimum 6 hours.Color of rose is also influenced by intensity of light.High light intensity is required for the development of anthocyanin pigment in petals.

Relative humidity

Humidity is of great importance for production of quality rose flowers.In summer condition 50-60% humidity is required.Very high RH at lower temperature increases the chance of occurrence of diseases.

Planting time

Winter months are the best and safest for plantation as the plants are in dormant stage in this time and easy to handle.In areas with severe winter,planting may be done either in autumn or in spring.

Planting distance

This affects the quality of blooms per unit area.Planting distance differ with place and type of roses;

For Dwarf polyanthus:45 cm

For Miniatures:30 cm

For Climbing roses:3 m

For HT and Floribundas:55 cm

Irrigation

In summer season rose plants should be irrigated twice a week and once a week during winter.After manuring each time watering is necessary.The plant should not be irrigated before and after pruning.

Manures and fertilizers

Roses generally need fertilizing during spring after the leaves grow,then after each blooming flush and after pruning activity.The rose plant should not be fed for about six weeks before frost;otherwise plant produces new growth that suffer from winter damage.For rose plants in open field, 6-8 kg well rotten manure and 60gm per plant NPK in the ratio 120:60:40 should be used.

Pruning

Rose plant is pruned during the dormant stage when its activity is least.The most usual time of pruning is during October-November in warmer plains after the rains are well over and thee cold season is approaching.Three types of pruning are practiced in roses;

Light pruning:each bush will have 6-8 canes and each cane will have 6-8 buds.

Moderate pruning:each bush will have 4-6 canes and each cane will have 4-6 buds.

Heavy pruning:each bush will have 2-4 cane and each cane will have 2-4 buds.

Propagation

Rose can be propagated by seeds as well as by various vegetative methods like cutting,layering ,budding and grafting.HT and Floribundas are propagated by grafting and budding while climbers,ramblers,polyantha and miniature roses can be propagated by cutting.

Harvesting

Rose is harvested at tight bud stage when calyx is at downward position and the bud shows full color but not yet started unfolding.The flowers should be harvested in the early morning or in the late afternoon to avoid thee damage of bud by high temperature.Red and pink cultivars can be harvested when first two petals of flowers start to unfold and calyx is reflexed below the horizontal line.However,the yellow type should be harvested slightly earlier and white rose types slightly later than red and pink.

 

Post harvest practices

Stem is dipped in water immediately after cutting.

Stored in cool temperature of 4.4-7.2 C for about 6-12 hours as higher temperature facilitates problems like bent neck and microbial infection .

To increase vase life of cut roses 5% sucrose along with 200 ppm 8-hydroxyquionoline sulphate and 500 ppm silver nitrate is used.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Scientific Fertilizer Application Technique in Grain legumes & Oilseed Crops calculated from Fertilizer Calculator

Fertilizer Application in Grain legumes & oilseed Crops

Know the scientific fertilizer application of calculated amount of fertilizer from our fertilizer calculator tool as recommended by NARC & other universities professor`s book.

 

  1. GRAIN LEGUMES
S.N. Crops Scientific Fertilizer Application/Time
1. Lentil Apply all the required fertilizers at the time of sowing

Apply Zinc Sulphate @ 15-20 kg/ha

Apply Sulphur @ 17-22 kg/ha

Also mix Rhizobium in the seed

2. Chickpea Apply all the required fertilizers at the time of sowing

Apply Zinc Sulphate @ 15-20 kg/ha

Also mix Rhizobium in the seed

3. Pigeon pea Apply all the required fertilizers at the time of sowing

Apply Zinc Sulphate @ 15-20 kg/ha

Apply Sulphur @ 17-22 kg/ha

Also mix Rhizobium in the seed

4. Black gram Apply all the required fertilizers at the time of sowing

Also mix Rhizobium in the seed

5. Green Gram Apply all the required fertilizers at the time of sowing

Also mix Rhizobium in the seed

6. Soybean Apply all the required fertilizers at the time of sowing

Also mix Rhizobium in the seed

7. Pea Apply all the required fertilizers at the time of sowing

Also mix Rhizobium in the seed

8 Cowpea Apply all the required fertilizers at the time of sowing

Also mix Rhizobium in the seed

9. Horse gram Apply all the required fertilizers at the time of sowing

Also mix Rhizobium in the seed

 

 

  1. OILSEED CROPS
S.N. Crops Scientific Fertilizer Application/Time  
1. Mustard Apply required urea

1/2 – At the time of sowing

1/2 – At the time of flowering

2 Rapeseed Apply required urea

1/2 – At the time of sowing

1/2 – At the time of flowering

3. Sunflower Apply required urea

½ – At the time of sowing

¼ – At 25 days after sowing

¼ – At 45 days after sowing

4. Sesamum For light soil:

Apply required urea

½ – At the time of sowing

¼ – At 30 days after sowing

¼ – At 50 days after sowing

For heavy soil:

Apply required urea

½ – At the time of sowing

½ – at the time of flowering

5 Groundnut Apply required urea

½ – At the time of sowing

Apply Gypsum @ 300 kg/ha

Apply agriculture lime @ 1000 kg/ha

6. Safflower Apply all the required fertilizer at the time of sowing
7. Castor Apply required urea

½ – At the time of sowing

½ – At 60 days after sowing

8. Niger Apply required urea

½ – At the time of sowing

½ – At 30-35 days after sowing

 

Scientific Fertilizer Application Technique in Flowers, Cereals & Cash Crops calculated from Fertilizer Calculator

Fertilizer Application in Flowers, Cereals & Cash Crops

Know the scientific fertilizer application of calculated amount of fertilizer from our fertilizer calculator tool as recommended by NARC & other universities professor`s book.

  1. Flowers
S.N. Crops Scientific Fertilizer Application/Time
1. Gladiolus Apply required urea

½ – At the time of planting

¼ – At 4-leaves stage

¼ – At 6-leaves stage

2. Rose Apply required urea

½ – At the time of planting

10 grams urea per plant every week

3. Orchid Apply all the required fertilizers at the time of planting
4. Tuberose Apply all the required fertilizers at the time of planting
5. Chrysanthemum Apply required urea

½ – At the time of planting

From Remaining ½ Urea Fertilizer

Apply 10 gram from 3rd week onwards per plant weekly.

Apply 2.5 grams Magnesium per liter water and spray.

6. Anthurium Apply required urea

½ – At the time of planting

Apply 10 gram per plant after each harvest.

7. Gerbera Apply all calculated fertilizers at planting.

From 4th Month; apply equal amount of calculated fertilizer as:

½ fertilizer- First week

Remaining ½ – Third week

8. Carnation From Calculated Fertilizer amount:

Apply ½ (Urea & Potash) & all DAP at planting.

Apply remaining ½ Urea & potash every week @ 2.5 grams/plant.

9. Marigold From Calculated Urea Fertilizer: Apply

½ – At Planting

¼- 20 Days After Planting

¼-40 Days After Planting

10. Bird of paradise From Calculated Urea Fertilizer: Apply

½ – At Planting

1/2- One Month before flower initiation

11. Dahlia From Calculated Urea Fertilizer: Apply

½ – At Planting time

1/2- 10 grams per plant before one month of flower initiation.

 

  1. CEREAL CROPS
S.N. Crops Scientific Fertilizer Application/Time
1 Maize Local/ Hybrid- Required urea

1/3- at the time of sowing

1/3- at knee-high stage

1/3- at tasseling stage

Apply 15-20 kg/ha zinc

2 Wheat Required urea for irrigated/unirrigated land

1/3- at the time of sowing

1/3- 25-30 days after sowing

1/3- at spike initiation stage

Apply 15-20 kg/ha zinc

3 Rice Local/hybrid- Required urea

1/3- at the time of sowing

1/3- 21-27 days after sowing

1/3- at panicle initiation stage

Apply 20 kg/ha zinc

4 Buckwheat Apply required urea all at the time of sowing
5 Barley Apply required urea all at the time of sowing
6 Millet Apply required urea

1/2- at the time of sowing

1/4- 30 days after sowing

1/4- 50 days after sowing

 

Cash crops:

S.N. Crops Scientific Fertilizer Application/Time
2 Cotton From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply Urea as:

½ – During Planting

½ – During square initiation (60 days after plantation)

3 Sugarcane From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply Urea as:

1/3 – During Planting

1/3 – 3 months after plantation

1/3 – 6 months after plantation

4 Jute From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply Urea as:

½ – During Planting

½ – 6 months after planting (At weeding time)

5 Tobacco From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply Urea as:

½ – During Planting

½ – 35 days after plantation

6 Tea From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply Urea as:

½ – During Planting

½ – After 5 months (150 days after planting)

Apply 20 grams fertilizers after each pruning.

7 Coffee Apply 150 grams Urea, 0 grams DAP & 150 grams Potash per plant for 1st Year.

Apply 1st year dose with adding 150 grams Urea, 10 grams DAP & 150 grams Potash per plant upto 4 years.

Apply Calculated Fertilizer amount in 5th Year.

8 Cardamom From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply Urea as:

½ – During Sucker initiation stage

½ – During fruit initiation

         

 

 

 

Scientific Fertilizer Application Technique in Fruits calculated from Fertilizer Calculator

   Fertilizer Application in Fruits

Know the scientific fertilizer application of calculated amount of fertilizer from our fertilizer calculator tool as recommended by NARC & other universities professor`s book.

FRUITS:

S.N. Crops Scientific Fertilizer Application/Time
1. Mango Apply 100 grams Urea, 75 grams DAP & 100 grams Potash per plant for 1st Year.

Apply 1st year dose with adding 100 grams Urea, 75 grams DAP & 100 grams Potash per plant upto 4 years.

Apply Calculated Fertilizer amount in 5th Year.

Apply 3 kg Lime/Plant each Year.

2. Citrus (mandarin, sweet orange, lemon and lime)

 

Apply 300 grams Urea, 0 grams DAP & 100 grams Potash per plant for 1st Year.

Apply 1st year dose with adding 200 grams Urea, 100 grams DAP & 50 grams Potash per plant upto 4 years.

Apply Calculated Fertilizer amount in 5th Year.

3. Banana From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply Urea as:

½ – During Planting

½ – During fruit bunch initiation

4. Papaya From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply Urea as:

½ – During Planting

½ – During flower initiation

5. Pineapple From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply ½ – DAP & Potash at planting but apply ¼ – Urea

½- Urea, DAP & Potash- 1 year after planting

¼ – Urea; 15 months later

6. Jackfruit Apply 150 grams Urea, 80 grams DAP & 100 grams Potash per plant for 1st Year.

Apply 1st year dose with adding 150 grams Urea, 80 grams DAP & 100 grams Potash per plant upto 4 years.

Apply Calculated Fertilizer amount in 5th Year.

7. Guava Apply 210 grams Urea, 160 grams DAP & 0 grams Potash per plant for 1st Year.

Apply 1st year dose with adding 60 grams Urea, 50 grams DAP & 120 grams Potash per plant upto 4 years.

Apply Calculated Fertilizer amount in 5th Year.

8. Litchi Apply 75 grams Urea, 25 grams DAP & 75 grams Potash per plant for 1st Year.

Apply 1st year dose with adding 25 grams Urea, 25 grams DAP & 25 grams Potash per plant upto 4 years.

Apply Calculated Fertilizer amount in 5th Year.

9 Strawberry From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply Urea as:

½ – During Planting

½ – During flower initiation

10. Pomegranate From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply Urea as:

½ – During Planting

½ – During flower initiation

Repeat each year

11. Kiwi From calculated fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply urea as:

½ – During Planting

½ – During Flower initiation

Repeat each year

12. Grapes Apply 80 grams Urea, 560 grams DAP & 160 grams Potash per plant for 1st Year.

Apply 1st year dose with adding 80 grams Urea, 560 grams DAP & 160 grams Potash per plant upto 4 years.

Apply Calculated Fertilizer amount in 5th Year.

13. Apple Apply 70 grams Urea, 35 grams DAP & 70 grams Potash per plant for 1st Year.

Apply 1st year dose with adding 35 grams Urea, 35 grams DAP & 35 grams Potash per plant upto 4 years.

Apply Calculated Fertilizer amount in 5th Year.

14. Pear Apply 100 grams Urea, 5 grams DAP & 30 grams Potash per plant for 1st Year.

Apply 1st year dose with adding 50 grams Urea, 2 grams DAP & 5 grams Potash per plant upto 4 years.

Apply Calculated Fertilizer amount in 5th Year.

15. Peach Apply 110 grams Urea, 50 grams DAP & 30 grams Potash per plant for 1st Year.

Apply 1st year dose with adding 5 grams Urea, 25 grams DAP & 5 grams Potash per plant upto 4 years.

Apply Calculated Fertilizer amount in 5th Year.

16. Plum Apply 7 grams Urea, 35 grams DAP & 100 grams Potash per plant for 1st Year.

Apply 1st year dose with adding 7 grams Urea, 3 grams DAP & 100 grams Potash per plant upto 6 years.

Apply Calculated Fertilizer amount in 7th Year.

17. Dragon fruit Apply 7 grams Urea, 90 grams DAP & 40 grams Potash per plant for 1st Year.

Apply 1st year dose with adding 35 grams Urea, 45 grams DAP & 20 grams Potash per plant upto 4 years.

Apply Calculated Fertilizer amount in 5th Year.

 

 

Scientific Fertilizer Application Technique in Vegetables calculated from Fertilizer Calculator

Fertilizer Application in Vegetable

Know the scientific fertilizer application of calculated amount of fertilizer from our fertilizer calculator tool as recommended by NARC & other universities professor`s book.

VEGETABLES:

S.N. Crops Scientific Fertilizer Application/Time  
1. Tomato From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply Urea as:

1/3 – During Planting

1/3 – 25-30 days after planting

1/3 – 45-50 days after planting.

2. Brinjal From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply Urea as:

1/3 – During Planting

1/3 – 30 days after planting

1/3 – 50 days after planting.

3. Chilly and capsicum From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply Urea as:

1/3 – During Planting

1/3 – 30 days after planting

1/3 – 50 days after planting.

4. Potato From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply Urea as:

3/4 – During Planting

1/4 – During earthing up

Also apply 90 kg/ha Calcium & 30 kg/ha Magnesium

5. Cauliflower From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply Urea as:

1/2 – During Planting

1/4 – 30 days after planting

1/4 – During curd formation

6. Cabbage From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply Urea as:

1/2 – During Planting

1/4 – 30 days after planting

1/4 – During curd formation

7. Broccoli From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply Urea as:

1/2 – During Planting

1/4 – 30 days after planting

1/4 – 45 days after planting.

8. Kohlrabi From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply Urea as:

1/2 – During Planting

1/2 – 30 days after planting (At earthing up)

9. Brussel sprouts From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply Urea as:

1/2 – During Planting

1/6 – 30 days after planting

1/6 – 45 days after planting

1/6 – During flower initiation

10. Radish From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply Urea as:

1/2 – During Planting

1/4 – 20-25 days after planting

1/4 –During root initiation

11 Carrot From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply Urea as:

1/2 – During Planting

1/2 – 30 days after planting

12 Turnip From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply Urea as:

1/2 – During Planting

1/2 – During Root initiation

13 Beetroot From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply Urea as:

1/2 – During Planting

1/4 – 25 days after planting

1/4 – 45 days after planting.

14 Onion From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply Urea as:

1/2 – During Planting

1/4 – 30 days after planting

1/4 – 45-60 days after planting.

Also Apply 20 kg/ha Zinc & 20 kg/ha Borax

 

15 Garlic From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply Urea as:

1/2 – During Planting

1/4 – 30-40 days after planting

1/4 – 60-70 days after planting.

16 Pea Apply Calculated amount of Urea, DAP & Potash at planting

Also make Rhizobium inoculation in seed.

17 Beans Apply Calculated amount of Urea, DAP & Potash at planting

Also make Rhizobium inoculation in seed.

18 Broad bean Apply Calculated amount of Urea, DAP & Potash at planting

Also make Rhizobium inoculation in seed.

19 Hyacinth or dolichus bean From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply Urea as:

1/2 – During Planting

1/2 – 30 days after planting.

20 Cowpea From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply Urea as:

1/2 – During Planting

1/2- 21 days after planting.

21 Okra (Bhindi) From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply Urea as:

1/3 – During Planting

1/3 – 28 days after planting

1/3 – At time of flower initiation

22 Cucumber From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply Urea as:

1/3 – During Planting

1/3 – 30 days after planting

1/3 – During Flower initiation

23 Ridge gourd, sponge gourd, bitter gourd, snake gourd, bottle gourd, ash gourd, squash From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply Urea as:

1/3 – During Planting

1/3 – 30 days after planting

1/3 – During Flower initiation

 

24 Muskmelon, watermelon, long melon, pumpkin From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply Urea as:

1/3 – During Planting

1/3 – 30 days after planting

1/3 – During Flower initiation

25 Pointed gourd, ivy gourd From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply Urea as:

1/3 – During Planting

1/3 – 30 days after planting

1/3 – During Flower initiation

26 Broad leaved mustard From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply Urea as:

1/2 – During Planting

1/6 – 25-30 days after planting

1/6 – 45-50 days after planting

1/6 – 70-80 days after planting

27 Cress From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply Urea as:

1/2 – During Planting

1/4 – 15-20 days after planting

1/4 – 40-45 days after planting.

28 Spinach From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply Urea as:

1/2 – During Planting

1/4 – 15-20 days after planting

1/4 – 40-45 days after planting.

29 Swiss chard From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply Urea as:

1/2 – During Planting

1/6 – 25-30 days after planting

1/6 – 50-60 days after planting

1/6 – 80-90 days after planting

30  

Fenugreek

From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply Urea as:

1/2 – During Planting

1/6 – 30 days after planting

1/6 – After first harvest

1/6 – After 2nd harvest

31 Amaranthus From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply Urea as:

1/2 – During Planting

1/6 – 30 days after planting

1/6 – After first harvest

1/6 – After 2nd harvest

32 Lettuce From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply Urea as:

1/2 – During Planting

1/2 – 30 days after planting

33 Celery From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply Urea as:

1/2 – During Planting

1/6 – 40 days after planting

1/6 – 80 Days after planting

1/6 – 120 Days after planting

 

34 Coriander Apply calculated all fertilizer during planting.

Apply same calculated amount of fertilizer 30 days after planting.

Apply same calculated amount of fertilizer 75 days after planting.

35 Cumin From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply Urea as:

1/2 – During Planting

1/2 – 45 days after planting

37 Fennel From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply Urea as:

1/2 – During Planting

1/2 – 30 days after planting

38. Ginger From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply Urea as:

1/2 – During Planting

1/4 – 30 days after planting

1/4 – 45 days after planting

39. Turmeric From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply Urea as:

1/5 – During Planting

1/5 – 30 days after planting

1/5 – 45 days after planting

1/5 – 90 days after planting

1/5 – 120 days after planting

40. Yam From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP at planting but apply Urea & Potash as:

1/2 – 30 days after planting

1/2 – 60 days after planting

41. Cassava (Tapioca) From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply Urea as:

1/2 – During Planting

1/4 – 30 days after planting

1/4 – 45 days after planting

42. Sweet potato From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply Urea as:

1/2 – 30 days after planting

1/2 – 60 days after planting

43. Colocasia/taro From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP at planting but apply Urea & Potash as:

3/4 – During Planting

1/4 – During Earthing Up

44. Elephant foot yam From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply Urea as:

1/3 – During Planting

1/3 – 45 days after planting

1/3 – 75 days after plantation (Earthing Up)

45. Asparagus (kurilo) From Calculated Fertilizer

Apply DAP & Potash at planting but apply Urea as:

1/5 – During Planting

1/5 – 20-25 days after planting

1/5 – After first harvest

1/5 – After second Harvest

1/5 – After third harvest

46. Drumstick Apply all Calculated fertilizers amount at planting.

Apply same Calculated fertilizers amount 3 months later.

Apply same Calculated fertilizers amount 6 months later.

 

Gladiolus: Know the production technology & post harvest techniques

      Production Practices of Gladiolus

 Introduction

Common name:Gladiolus

Botanical name:Gladiolus gandavensis

Family:Iridicaeae

The name gladiolus was coined by Pliny the Elder.It is derived from the greek word ‘’gladius’’,meaning sword on account of its sword shaped foliage.Therefore,gladiolus is called Sword Lily.

Referring to the corm,gladiolus is known as the ‘’Queen of bulbous plants’’.

 

Classification

According to the size of flower,gladiolus is classified as:

  1. Grandiflorus:Large and exhibition type
  2. Primulinus:Used as a cut flower
  3. Pixiola:Small flower with long keeping quality,used for pot culture and bedding purpose
  4. Butterfly:Medium size of the flower,attractive blotches and throat marking.

 

Uses

  1. Gladiolus is a very popular flowering plant in international cut flower trade.
  2. Its magnificent inflorescence with a variety of colours has made it attractive for use in herbaceous borders,beddings,pots and for cut flowers.
  3. For cutflower,primulinus types are better as more spikes often come out from a corm and they may be planted in isolated borders.
  4. Grandiflorus and primulinus types look very attractive in mixed flower borders,but primulinus types are preferred as these donot need stalking,and so,are also good for bedding.

 

Cultivation practices

 

Temperature

Optimum growth of gladiolus occurs at cool climate i.e. between the temperature range of 10-25 C.20 degree celsius is considered optimum for cultivation,whereas night temperature should not exceed 16 C.

Low night temperature induces flower blasting.The plant cannot tolerate frost.

 

Photoperiod

Gladiolus requires at least 80% of total sunlight.Most of the varieties of gladiolus require light period of 8 hours a day.

Long day are proved to be better yield and for production of better quality flower spike over short day.Therefore,the cultivating area should be oriented in south-east direction and must allow uninterrupted sunlight.

 

Light intensity

Gladiolus prefers high light intensity but very high intensities without the provision for temperature control adversely affect the growth,although low light intensity is the main cause for failure in flowering.

The quality of the flower spikes and yield is better in a long day condition than short days.

 

Soil

Gladiolus can grow on wide range of soil from light sandy to clay loam.Soil that is slightly acidic I.e. pH between 5.5 -6.5 is suitable for gladiolus.

Proper drainage condition is a must for gladiolus.Raised bed should be made in case of wet soil.

 

Propagation

Gladiolus can be propagated by seed,corms,cormels as well as by tissue culture technique.However corm and cormels are most widely used material.

Corms of small size i.e. 2.5 cm diameter are referred as cormels.

 

Planting

Gladiolus is normally a seven crop from planting to the lifting of corms.In hills of Nepal,it is planted during March-April and in plains it is planted during late September-January.

Well treated corm measuring more than 5 cm should be used for planting.Planting corms are identified at by the presence of rootlets at the base.

 

Planting distance

Distance varies with the cultivar,corm size and the purpose for which the plants are grown.

Close planting though increases the flowering shoots but it reduces flower number per spike and duration of flowering.The optimum planting distance is 20 x 20 cm.

 

Manuring and fertilizer

Manorial dosage of 250 kg of FYM,1.5:1.4:1.4 lg of NPK and 120 g of zinc per 100 meter square are appropriate for fertilizing the gladiolus.

Gladiolus should not be fertilized with excessive nitrogen because this encourages plants to form long and weak flower stalk.In general iron deficiency occurs,so iron-chelate application during planting is required.

 

 

Irrigation

Before planting,the field should have sufficient moisture so that no watering is required till sprouting.The increase in the soil moisture content increases corm diameter and weight.

Normally,for sandy loam soil irrigation is required at the interval of 7-10 days.4th leaf stage and flower initiation stage are most sensitive to water stage.

 

Harvesting

Spikes are harvested at morning.For distant market ,the cutting should be done at the tight bud stage with at least four leaves left on the plant and first floret blushes its color.

For local market,it is harvested when the basal floret is fully open.The spikes should be given a slant cut at the base of the long spike with a sharp knife.Then the harvested spikes are to be immersed up to its neck in a bucket full of water.

 

Post- harvest practices

1.Lifting of corm

After 45 days of spike harvest,the corm and cormels are lifted from the field and stored.The best time to lift corm is until all of the plant matter has turned brown and died back.

2.Grading

Gladiolus spikes are graded into following five grades according to the spike length and number of floret present.

Grade Spike length cm Number of florets
Fancy >107 16
Special >96 to 107 15
Standard >81 to 96 12
Utility <81 10

3.Storage

The cut spikes should be immediately placed in cold water at 6-11 C temperature if the market is near.However,for distant market they are refrigerated i.e. at 2.3 -2-8 C.

4.Packaging

Spikes are submerged in water,if they are intended to be to the local market.But for distant market,they are packed in cardboard or wooden boxes.

The box prepared for transportation should be perforated at several places for regulation of air.

  1. Vase-life

The floral preservative solution or vase solution must contain at least a source of carbohydrate and a bactercide.600 ppm 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate with 4% sucrose is effective for increasing the water uptake and decreasing vascular blockage.0.1% AlSO4 is found equally effective as 8-HQC/HQS.

Normally 50 ppm silver nitrate or silver thiosulphate is used.

Fertilizer calculation Click here.

Hemp Plant: Introduction, uses & cultivation techniques in Nepal

   COMMERCIAL HEMP PRODUCTION

Note: Production & Sale of hemp plant is legally not permitted in Nepal. This article is solely for information purposes & not for encouraging in illegal production & trade of hemp.

Introduction

Common name: Hemp

Scientific name: Cannabis sativa

Family: Cannabaceae

Hemp is an annual plant of Cannabis family, but it is not Marijuana. According to David P. West, Ph.D., writing for the North American Industrial Hemp Council, there are several plants in genus cannabis with the unique molecular compounds called cannabinoids, of which many have been identified. However, there are two primary cannabinoids that are of importance in hemp classification. On the one hand, tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, is the psychoactive ingredient in plants of the cannabis genus, produces the typical effects of marijuana. On the other hand, cannabinoid, CBD, is an anti-psychoactive ingredient. Cannabis plants used as drugs are high in THC and low in CBD. Likewise, industrial hemps are high in CBD and low in THC. West reports the levels of THC in industrial hemp are so low that no one could get high from smoking it; it is definitively not marijuana (Investing News Network, 2014).

Uses:

Hemp is a good plant with bad reputation. It can be used to make varieties of items due to its adaptable properties. Hemp fiber is a traditional material for making ropes, paper, hemp clothes, biodegradable plastics, biofuels, textiles, cosmetics, medicine and even ethanol. Its seeds can be mixed in bird feed and also utilized for the production of oil-based paints.

Hemp is a multipurpose plant with some exceptions; such as:

  • Hemp fiber is eight times stretchable and four times durable than cotton.
  • Hemp clothes take in moisture up to 30% of its weight and dry quickly.
  • Cultivation of hemp needs less water because it can resist drought.
  • It needs few or no insecticides and pesticides because it is resistant to bacteria, mold, and mildew.
  • Hemp grown in one acre of land can produce 250% or more fabric than cotton.

Climate & Soil:

  • Hemp plant is best adapted to well-drained soil with a pH between 6.0 and 7.0.
  • Hemp does not grow well on wet soils or those with a heavy clay content.
  • It is sensitive to soil crusting and soil compaction, that can occur on these soils.
  • Soil temperature of 10 degree Celsius is best suited for quality hemp production.
  • The growing cycle for hemp plant is approximately 108-120 days, during which these growing conditions should remain relatively stable & consistent.

Field Preparation:

  • One primary tillage with cultivator followed by 2-3 harrowing with rotavator making fine tilth.
  • Then prepare a firm, shallow bed for the most uniformity in seeding depths, not unlike for planting clover or alfalfa.

 Planting Time & Planting material:

  • Hemp should be planted in May to early June in Hill condition
  • For Terai condition February to April.
  • Short day plant & will begin to mature when day length is less than 12 hours of sunlight.

Varieties

  • Varieties come in various heights, including those that are medium height (6-7 feet tall), semi-dwarf (4-5 feet tall), & dwarf (3-4 feet tall).
  • Cannabis sativa subspp. sativavar. sativa is variety grown for industrial use, while C. sativa subspp. indica generally has poor fiber quality and female buds from this variety are primarily used for recreational and medicinal purposes.

Planting Distance:

  • Sow seeds relatively closely together, i.e. four inches, depending on the size of growing space and the yield of desired crop.
  • Plant seeds at a depth of around 1/2 to 3/4 inch & aim for seeding in 15-inch to 30-inch rows at a rate of 1406 to 1968 grams per ropani.
  • On sowing seeds mechanically, then use conventional seeding equipment to plant hemp seeds with no other special equipment required.
  • Either a grain drill or a corn planter will be better. Once the seeds are planted, it is recommended to roll and pack the soil.

Manuring & fertilization:

  • Hemp plant are best when grown in organic condition as they don`t require huge supplementary nutrients.
  • 90-135 : 45 : 65 kg NPK/ha is recommended with mild 10-20% organic content in soil according to (Canadian Hemp Trade Alliance) CHTA.
  • Apply nitrogen in 2-3 split dose i.e. ½ at field preparation & remaining half at weeding stage 25-30 days after sowing & next split at 40-50 days.

Irrigation:

  • Irrigate the planted seeds sufficiently, especially during their first six weeks in the soil.
  • Even though hemp plants are generally drought tolerant, they can be more fragile and sensitive to dryness in those early days.

Weeding:

  • Weed crop competition is higher during the early stages.
  • One or 2 hand weeding at 25-30 days after sowing is crucial for better crop establishment & production.

Harvesting:

  • About 90 to 100 days after sowing, the head of the hemp plant is considered to have fully matured.
  • Start to observe seed heads maturing from the bottom and moving upward to reach completion.
  • After the seed bracts have fully matured, they expose the seeds they contain, allowing you to air dry them naturally.
  • Finally, approximately 100 to 120 days after the seeds were planted (around September or October), the plant is primed (ready) for harvest.

Post-harvest processing:

  • After harvesting the hemp, clean all foreign material from the grain and prepare it for storage until the time you’re ready to process it.
  • Ensure it is properly aerated immediately to avoid spoiling. Dry hemp grain to approximately 9% moisture.
  • The best for drying hemp is a belt conveyor, though we can use an auger as well, as long as we run it slow and full. This will help keep seeds from cracking.

Profit:

Growing hemp plant in best cultivation practice can yield net profit upto 10 thousands per ropani i.e.

References

Investing News Network. (2014, April 18). An Introduction to Hemp.

https://industrialhempfarms.com/hemp-farming-guide/

https://extension.psu.edu/industrial-hemp-production

http://www.hemptrade.ca/grow-hemp

MECHANISM OF SECOND OPENING IN WHEAT FLOWER

INTRODUCTION:

Crop plant domestication has targeted a variety of traits, including synchronous development of ovules and stamens to maximize fertilization and seed production. Wheat plant bears autogamous, self-pollinating flower which is very attractive for guaranteeing yield but at the same time frustrating for the researchers and breeders trying to develop hybrids through cross-pollination. A new discovery, characterizing the developmental physiology of wheat florets opening after a few days post-anthesis (second opening), provides an additional opportunity for pollination, facilitates out-crossing and provides a method to further understand the regulation of wheat flower architecture and development. (Okada T, 2017)

MECHANISM OF FLOWER OPENING:

First flower opening:

Generally, at anthesis in wheat, floret first opening driven by lodicule swelling, anther dehiscence and filament elongation occur simultaneously, that also, only for less than 30 minutes and then closes ensuring self-fertilization (Heslop-Harrison Y, 1996). This flower opening is caused due to increased turgidity of lodicules which pushes the anthers outward. Since this extrusion occurs post-anthesis and flower opens only for short duration, there is very less chance (<1%) to produce F1 hybrid (Adelaide, 2018). More the duration of flower opening, more will be the probability for out-crossing.

Second flower opening:

The second opening of flower occurs due to the enlargement of unfertilized ovary. The fertilized ovaries increase in size vertically with the degradation of pericarp whereas the unfertilized ovaries swell up radially along with the pericarp cells remaining intact and enlarging but show only a slight increase in vertical direction. This enlargement exceeds the breadth of lemma and forces lemma and palea apart resulting the opening of flower for the second time (Nansamba, 2017). This second opening can last for several days providing better opportunities for cross-pollination.

To address the question, when and how does the ovary detect the absence of pollination and begin to enlarge, different researches were held and it was found that the width and depth of male-sterile ovaries were already significantly larger than male-fertile ovaries at 3 DF (days after fertilization). This indicates that the enlargement of ovary initiates at 3 DF in male-sterile lines.

Now, there is a dilemma, how the ovary could remain unfertilized till the second opening of flower?

Wheat flower is autogamous and self-pollinating and hence, the pollination is completed prior to extrusion of anthers i.e. first opening. Therefore, there is insignificant probability of flower being out-crossed.

There are two popular ways to prevent self-fertilization in wheat (Mette MF, 2015):

  • First is, chemical application to the female receptor line or emasculation. This is expensive, can give variable results and requires precision spraying in favorable weather conditions to avoid triggering sterility in the male donor lines, which are grown in close proximity (Whitford R, 2013).
  • The second method involves the use of male-sterile lines that do not produce pollen. It is favorable because it needs no chemical manipulation, however, the use of male-sterile lines only is not sufficient as they must also open to allow cross-pollination by neighboring male pollen donor line. The male-sterile lines have prolonged second opening facilitated by the swollen ovary (Okada T, 2017).

The row of male donor line and female receptor line is arranged in a close proximity with male pollen donor line taller than the female receptive line which extrudes anther prior to dehiscence to release pollen. The pollen gets dispersed over male-sterile florets. The male-sterile florets open due to radial swelling of unfertilized ovary so that it can receive the pollen and increase the chance of fertilization and survival. In this whole process, breeder should keep in mind that the female receptive line is isolated from the contact of all other undesired pollen. For this, the spikes should be covered with glycine bag immediately after emasculation. Isolation can also be done as spatial isolation (isolation by distance) or temporal isolation (isolation by time i.e. by altering the sowing time or varietal time etc.)

You may wonder, why not the laboratory-work then??

Well, we are all acquainted with the fact that, first opening of flower lasts only for few hours and capturing the pollen at right stage is a lottery. Thus, collecting pollen from the field and fertilizing with ovule at correct stage with success is impracticable. Instead, using lines with an open receptive female flower would make it possible to pollinate by wind, dramatically increasing the chance for successful fertilization.

CONCLUSION:

Fertilization is crucial in plant’s life cycle mostly for evolution and to continue its race. When fertilization fails, plant tends to increase the probability of new fertilization by altering their behavioral pattern like flowering pattern and so on. One of the noble examples is second opening of flower in wheat. This research characterizes the cross-talk between fertilization, ovule development and physiology of flowers in self-pollinating cereal crops. Moreover, it reveals the alteration in function of different floral parts such as the nutrients accumulated in pericarp for seed development is redirected for a different function, specifically the opening of the flower. The outcomes and findings of this research can also be applied to different plant species which would further aid in sustainable grain production.

References:

Adelaide, U. o. (2018, February 15). Open flower for Wheat Seed Production. Research Stories.

Heslop-Harrison Y, H.-H. J. (1996). Lodicule function and filament extension in the grasses: potassium ion movement and tissue specialization. Annals of Botany 77, 573-582.

Mette MF, G. M. (2015). Hybrid breeding in wheat. In: Ogihara Y, Takumi S, Handa H, . Advances in wheat genetics: from genome to field.eds.Tokyo:Springer.

Nansamba, M. &. (2017). Unfertilized ovary pushes wheat flower open for cross-pollination. Journal of Experimental Botany.

Okada T, J. R. (2017). Unfertilized ovary pushes wheat flower open for cross-pollination. Journal of Experimental Botany68, 395–408.

Whitford R, F. D. (2013). Hybrid breeding in wheat: technologies to improve hybrid wheat seed production. Whitford R ,Fleury D,Reif JC,Garcia M,Okada T,Korzun V,Langridge P. 201Journal of Experimental Botany64,, 5411–5428.

 

 

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