Month: November 2019

Dragon Fruit: Meaning, Cultivation Techniques & health benefits.

Dragon Fruit: Cultivation Techniques & health benefits.

Author: Tirtha Raj Devkota
MSc .Ag. Horticulture
Agriculture and Forestry University

 

  • Common name: Dragon fruit
  • Family: Cactaceae
  • Scientific name: Hylocereus Undatus
  • Origin: South America
  • Weight: 150 to 600 grams some reach 1 kilogram

Dragon fruit is very strange looking fruit. The dragon fruit is also known as a pitahaya or pitaya in Mexico. In Central America and northern South America it popular as pitaya Roja. Dragon fruit plant sowing is excellent in the less expected rainfall areas.

Dragon Fruit Uses

  • Jams
  • Ice creams
  • Jelly production
  • Fruit juice
  • Wine
  • Face packs
Climate Required For Dragon Fruit Farming

The tropical weather conditions are better for the dragon fruit cultivation. Dragon fruit pant requires 50 cm annual rainfall and 20 °C to 30 °C temperature. The high sunlight is not convivial for the dragon fruit crop. You can use the shading method for protecting the dragon fruit crop from the high sunlight.

Soil Requirement for Dragon Fruit Farming

In Dragon fruit farming you may mostly requires sandy loam or clay loam. The sandy soil is better for the dragon fruit cultivation. You should plowed soil until it not achieves the better tilth and weed free. You can also require pH of soil in between 5.5 to 7 and it is good for dragon fruit sowing. Before plantation applies any organic compost on the soil in proportional ratio

  • Cutting the 20 cm length of the plant from the mother dragon plants before two days of a plantation. Before cultivation, keep this cutting piece in a pot with the mixture of Dry cow dung, Topsoil, and Sand in the ratio of 1:1:2. Avoid sunlight from these cut piece.
  • When you start cultivation place the every plant 2-meter x 2-meter space between them and planted in a pit which is 60 cm x 60 cm x 60 cm in a size. Also, fill this pit with 100 grams super phosphate compost. The 1-acre land contains about 1700 dragon fruit plants. For plant proper development and growth put the support of concrete or wooden columns.

Planting time:

The fruits should be planted before the onset of monsoon. The fruits have the economic life of 20-25 years.

Plant population: ea

1700-1800 plants per acer or 4200 plants per hectare of land.

Fertilizers of Dragon Fruit Farming

The each plant of dragon fruit requires 10 to 15 kg of organic compost or organic fertilizers for well vegetative grow. In dragon fruit farming for plant better expansion and growth, organic compost or fertilizer can play the main role.

The each plant also requires 40 grams muriate of potash, 90 grams Super phosphate and 70 grams Urea per plant in the vegetative phase.

Apply a high amount of potash and low amount of nitrogen on a plant at fruit bearing phase for obtaining a high yield of dragon fruit.

Take 50 g Urea, 50 g Super phosphate and 100 g muriate of potash and spread this fertilizer on dragon fruit plant from flowering to harvesting stage. Increase the dose of fertilizer from 220 gram per year up to 1.5 kg per plant.

  • Before flower stage in April
  • Fruit developing stage in July to Aug
  • Harvesting of fruit stage In December

Pruning of dragon fruits:

After one month of planting pruning is done to remove the thinner and lateral buds which are growing away from the main stem. Constantly pruning is done to keep the plant healthy.

Irrigation of Dragon Fruit Farming

Drip irrigation method is effective and better irrigation system for dragon fruit plants. The irrigation requires frequently in a different stage of dragon fruit farming like planting, flowering and fruit development stage. Average 1-2 liter water per plant per day is sufficient.

Flowering:

After 8 months the buds will sprouts from the thorns and bloomed within 14 days. Dragon fruits bloom around 6 in the evening and dried up by the morning. Flowering start from June-July and it keep on producing flower to last of the year. The fruit start to develop from the days of fruits set and fruits need to be covered by the plastic to protect from the insects.

Harvesting Of Dragon Fruit Farming

The dragon fruit plant gets the flowering in May to June month and fruits from Aug to Dec month. After one year of planting Dragon fruit plant start bearing the fruits.

After one month of flowering stage, dragon fruits are ready for harvest. The immature dragon fruit has a bright green color skin.  After some day fruit skin turns in red color from dark green. The better harvesting time for dragon fruit is 3 to 4 days after fruit change its skin color. You can use the hand and sickle for picking the dragon fruit from the plant. You can expect average 5 to 6 tonnes dragon fruits per acre.

Dragon Fruit Production and Types

 

Primary Dragon Fruit Types

There are basically major three type of this Dragon Fruit according to their outer and internal side color.

·         Hylocereus undatus

Pink color fruit with white color flesh and also known as Pitaya blancaor white-fleshed pitahaya.

·         Hylocereus costaricensis

Red color fruit with red color flesh and it is also known as a Pitaya rojaor red-fleshed pitahaya or Hylocereus polyrhizus.

·         Hylocereus megalanthus

Yellow color fruit with white color flesh and it is also known as Pitaya amarillaor yellow pitahaya or Selenicereus megalanthus.

Dragon Fruit Nutrition
  • Phytonutrients
  • Antioxidants
  • vitamin C
  • polyunsaturated fatty acids
  • Carbohydrate
  • Vitamin B
  • Carotene
  • Protein
Various Dragon Fruit Benefits

Dragon fruit is beneficial for healthy skin and hair.

Dragon Fruit Health Benefits

  • Dragon fruit is help in Lowers Cholesterol
  • Helps With Stomach Ailments
  • Lowers Blood Sugar
  • Improves Cardiovascular Health
  • Cuts Low Hemoglobin Risk
  • Helps In Weight Management
  • Prevents Cancer
  • Prevents Congenital Glaucoma
  • Boosts Immunity
  • Helps Suppress Arthritis Pain
  • Dragon Fruit During Pregnancy
  • Prevents Renal Bone Disease
  • Stronger Teeth And Bones
  • Is Good For Dengue Patients
  • Repairs Body Cells
  • Improves Appetite
  • Improves Vision
  • Boosts Brain Function
  • Cures Respiratory Disorders
  • Healthy Snack Option For Kids
 
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    Calculate Fertilizer Required for Dragon Fruit Click here

Conservation Agriculture Meaning, Prospects & Goals. Why conservation Agriculture in Nepal?

Author: Shristi Adhikari
BSc. Ag. 3rd Semester
Agriculture and Forestry University

Agriculture is the mainstay of livelihood in Nepal. Agricultural activities accounts for about one-third of GDP, and provide a livelihood for almost 70% of the population. But its production is barely sufficient to meet domestic consumption needs. 32% of the population still lives in poverty line. Food insecurity persists in many parts of the country.

     Conservation Agriculture is a farming system that can prevent losses of arable land while regenerating degraded lands. According to definition given by FAO, Conservation Agriculture is ”a concept for resource-saving agricultural crop production that strives to achieve acceptable profits together with high and sustained production levels while concurrently conserving the environment.” So, Conservation Agriculture (CA) is a holistic approach characterized by minimal soil disturbance, diversified crop rotation and surface crop residue retention aimed not only at conserving soil and water but also biotic bases of sustainability. Research evidence illustrate that CA gives at least the same yield as conventional tillage (traditional practice), often more with less time and energy inputs and better environment sustainability. Also, it is reported that CA increases in yield of crops by 15 to 25%.

     Repeated tillage, removal or burning of the crop residues and absence of crop rotations are the fundamental causes of unsustainable conventional agricultural system in Nepal. Increasing uncertain in availability of water due to increasing frequency of drought or excess water events resulting in uneven water availability in time and space. Much of the agricultural land in Nepal being marginal such that about half of the agricultural land is located on slopes which results in soil losses from 2.7 to 8.2 tons per hectare. Today’s scenario of labor scarcity, dependence on rainfed ecologies, inappropriate use of fertilizers, increasing production costs and declining productivity are the major’s challenges of agriculture in Nepal. Furthermore, climate change has brought additional challenges to soil and water resources.

       Conservation Agriculture (CA) in several ways, is practically beneficial over Traditional Agriculture. In Traditional Agriculture, the burning of organic matter like weeds or leaves and the ploughing of soil eventually erode the soil and decrease the soil’s quality and production of crops. Whereas, the CA techniques conserves the soil properties by covering it with mulch. The mulch layer also preserves the humidity of soil. Similarly, in traditional practices, there is no proper agricultural system, so called to be follow, they just plant randomly. As a result, there is an impact in plants which grow up squeezed because they are very close to each other & don’t have enough space to grow healthy. Whereas, planting in line in CA makes the weeding and harvesting process easier for the farmers. There is a lot of hard work in Traditional Agriculture, but the result is not as expected. Whereas the soil’s health improves little by little and from the second year, using the CA techniques, the production tends to increase. Furthermore, significant improvements can be made in water conservation, enhancing soil quality and improving soil fertility. CA reduces water runoff, better water infiltration and more water in the soil profile throughout the crop growing period. It has potential to increase water application efficiency by over 50%. While fossil fuels are the main producer of CO2, estimates are that widespread adoption of conservation tillage could offset as much as 16% of world-wide fossils fuel emissions. CA also reduce vulnerability to extreme climatic events. Hence, through CA we can reverse the degradation of soils and move towards more sustainable agriculture.

          Despite the tremendous opportunities of CA in Nepal, no actions have been undertaken in an effective way. It actually has two intellectual barriers to overcome; the first is that CA concept and principles are counterintuitive and contradict the common tillage-based farming experience which has worked for generations and which often has created cultural values and rural traditions. The second is the lack of experimental knowledge about CA and the mechanism to acquire it.

     In Nepal, the extension and adoption of CA technology are in the primary stage and for their expansion, they require concerted efforts of all stakeholders in the partnership and participatory approaches. To promote CA, we need to generate knowledge through on-site research and wide-scale verification in farmer’s field. Similarly, the replication of CA success stories among North and South American countries can be taken into consideration, as the awareness and adoption of CA in these countries is increasing. Gender constraints is another major factor that need to be considered. Farm management decisions are often made by men in Nepal, we need to invite more women to trainings and host more gender specific trainings and be aware of the potential effects of CA adoption on women’s time and labor (since there is a trend towards the feminization of agriculture in Nepal). Accordingly, short, medium- and long-term strategies need to be set up for further research and development. Researcher, extensionists, farmers and private sectors need to build up strong working group to advocate CA along with machines manufactures need to be formed in order to scale up its adoption.

       Conservation Agriculture, thus enhances biodiversity and natural biological processes above and below the ground surface, which contribute to increased water and nutrient efficiency and to improved and sustained crop production. Therefore, promoting and adopting CA management systems in Terai and plain areas can provide sustainable and increased crop production in Nepal.

       CONSERVE NATURE,
       ACHIEVE FOOD SECURITY,
       IMPROVED NUTRITION &
       PROMOTE SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE!!!
Copyright@AgriTechNepal2019

Need of Today’s Agriculture Slogan; “One Farmer, One Neem plant” In Nepal

Need of Today’s Agriculture Slogan; “One Farmer, One Neem plant” In Nepal.

Author: Nabin Pandey
BSc. Ag. 5th Semester
Agriculture and Forestry University
10th November 2019, 

(Azadirachta indica,) commonly known as neem is a tree in the family meliaceae. It is typically grown in tropical and semi tropical region of Nepal. Plant diseases and insect occurrence are the major factors of crop yield loss in Nepal. Insects and disease loss account more than 35% in crops. According to latest estimate, the annual import of pesticides in Nepal is about 211 t a.i/ha with 29.19% insecticides, 61.38% fungicides, 7.43% herbicides and 2% others. Farmers in Bara, Chitwan, Dhading and Kavre district spray pesticides five to six times a year. 85% of annually imported pesticides are used in vegetable farming.

 According to UN an average of about 200,000 people die from the toxic exposure of pesticides per year across the world. In this havoc situation, it will be a little justice if we talk about neem plant. As we know, neem plant is bitter in taste. But there is profound sweetness for agriculture in the bitterness of this plant. Neem contains a large number of chemically diverse and structurally complex bioactive commonly referred to as limonoids and azadirachtin. Scientists estimate that the chemical compounds from neem can combat more than 300 species of insects, including cabbage loopers, gypsy moth, cockroaches, fleas, aphid and mosquitoes. Indeed, as foreseen by some scientists, this tree may usher in a new era in pest control. Neem acts in various ways against different insects as repellent, feeding inhibitor, egg laying deterrent, growth retardant, sterilizer, and toxin.

The importance of neem as bio- pesticide was realized by the modern scientific community, as early as 1959, when a German scientist in Sudan found that neem was the only tree that remained green during a desert locust plague. Martin Jacobson, a chemist with federal Department of Agriculture, has isolated several substances from neem trees that protect commercial crops from a wide variety of agricultural pest. One of the extracts, called azadirachtin, is so potent that it prevents insects from even touching the plant. Neemix, which was just registered with the Environmental Protection Agency in March for use on vegetables, claims to incapacitate everything from Colorado potato bugs to cabbageworms, without harming beneficial insects. Its active ingredient, azadirachtin, which is derived from the neem seed, appears to control insects and fail metamorphosis of insect larvae by disrupting the activity of ecdysone.

 Neem oil can also suffocate mites, whiteflies, aphids, and other types of soft bodied insects on contact. Multiple modes of action make it unlikely that insects and plant pathogen can develop resistance to neem. Also, certain pest such as floral thrips, diamond back moth and several leaf miners which develop resistance to the inorganic pesticides or that are inherently difficult to control with conventional pesticides are effectively controlled or managed with neem. Furthermore, it is natural product, absolutely non- toxic to other natural predators, 100% biodegradable and eco- friendly. Even some of the most cautions researchers are saying that neem deserves to be called a wonder plant’. Each and every part of neem plant are beneficial in agriculture.

  1. Neem cake: Neem cake has been found to have inhibitory effect on the growth of phytopathogenic fungi causing powdery mildew, wilt, leaf blight, leaf spot, blight and stem rot.
  2. Leaf: Leaves can be used as a cattle feed supplement which possess carminative properties and help in food digestion. They are also useful as mulch and manure. They are particularly useful in alleviating the copper deficiency of most straws and dry fodders.
  3. Fruit: The fruit pulp is useful as a tonic, antiperiodic, purgative, emollient and as anthelmintic.
  4. Seeds: Insects will not feed the grains treated with seeds of neem. The oil extract from the seed of neem helps to reduce the pest not by allowing the female to deposits eggs. This property is known as ovipositional deterrence.
  5. Neem seed Cake:  Neem seed cake is a major byproduct of the neem oil industry. It contains more Sulphur than other cake. The nitrogen content varies from 2 to 3% nitrogen, 0.5% phosphorus and 0.5% potassium. Being totally, botanical product 100% natural NPK content and other essential micro products. The cake is also used as manure. Neem cake has 6.5% digestible crude protein with 19 amino acids. Urea coated neem cake has been found to regulate the rate of nitrification and increase yield of grains and straws.

An angel tree, Neem can be an alien in chemical haunted agriculture of Nepal. The bitterness of this plant can be converted into sweetness which will help in bio friendly and sustainable agriculture. Really, global problems solving tree, neem needs to be accounted on time by government. Nepalese farmers want to get ride from the multitude of pests with a multitude of pesticidal ingredients. The best option will be, neem. Tomato is one of the major vegetable crops of Nepal. It is one of the major sources of income for small farmers. However, it is attacked (Helicoverpa armigera) insect. Neem based products can help in  Helicoverpa management. Likewise, Rice is an important agronomic crop in Nepal. But due to occurrences of pest and several diseases its production is limited. The spray of neem seed kernel extract can control brown plant hopper (BPH), leaf folder, leaf thrips, and silver shoot in rice crop. These are just a sample. Nepalese farmer faced many multifaceted problems in agriculture due to disease and pest. For the effective of IPM and for the solution of pest and disease in agriculture, government should create awareness about the multiuse of neem plant. Government should bring the holistic package that promotes the plantation of neem. To dwindle indiscriminate use of noxious chemical pesticide and to reduce its hurdle, slogan, “one farmer, one neem plant” should be nationally celebrated.

Different Approaches for Management of Brown Spot (Helminthosporium oryzae) Disease in Rice (Oryza sativa) in Nepal.

Different Approaches for Management of Brown Spot (Helminthosporium oryzae) Disease in Rice (Oryza sativa) in Nepal.

Author: Nabin Pandey
BSc. Ag 5th Semester
Agriculture and Forestry University
Rampur Chitwan Nepal

Abstract:

Worldwide, more than 3.5 billion people depend on rice for more than 20% of their daily calories’ intake. Rice is suffering from several fungal diseases among them brown spot caused by Bipolaris oryzae is important. Rice brown spot is a chronic disease that affects millions of hectares of rice. Cochliobolus miyabeanus (formerly known as Helminthosporium oryzae) is a fungus that causes brown spot disease in rice. This disease was the causal agent of the Bengal famine of 1943 that usually occurs on the host leaves and glume, as well as seedlings, sheaths, stems and grains of adult host plants. The severity of this disease is increasing rapidly that cause huge loss in yield. Different approaches can be implemented for management of brown spot in rice. Fungicides, such as iprodione, propiconazole, azoxystrobin, and carbendazim are effective in management of brown spot disease. Poonam variety showed the maximum disease severity of 51.47% and Kabeli show the lowest disease severity of 24.94%. Among the different fungicides, (Propiconazole 25 EC) at the rate of 2 ml/lit water showed significantly lowest AUDPC value. Our study primarily focused on management of brown spot of rice in Nepal through different approaches that are relevant to present situation of farmer.

Introduction:

Rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the most important cereal crops of Nepal (Karki et al., 2018). Rice covers 15, 52,469 ha of total cultivated land, with the production of 52, 30,327 mt and the productivity of 3.37 t/ ha in Nepal (MoAD, 2073/74). The Terai region (60-900 masl) contains 69.73% of the total rice area and contributes 73.24% of total rice production. Hills (900-1500 masl) and mountains (1500-2750 masl) have 25.82% and 4.44% of total rice area producing 23.71% and 3% of rice production (MOAD, 2012) (Moradi et al. 2015) . Brown spot, a devastating disease, caused by Bipolaris oryzae L. is the most important biotic constraint of rice production occurring in almost all the rice growing land in the World. Because of its devastating nature, widespread distribution and existence of several physiological races of the pathogen (Bipolaris oryzae), brown leaf spot disease is the most serious disease of rice (Arshad et al., 2008). It caused Bengal Famine in 1942, with yield loss of 50-90%, which resulted in death of 2 million people due to starvation. The pathogen can infect both seedlings and mature plants with the coleoptile, leaves, leaf sheath, panicle branches, glumes, and spikelets (Webster and Gunnell, 1992). The disease is responsible for reduction in leaf area index (LAI), early senescence of the diseased plants,reduction in number of tillers, reduction in shoot elongation and lowered quality and weight of individual grains (Vidhyasekharan et al., 1973; Klomp, 1977). The disease is also known as poor rice farmer’s disease because it occurs mostly in deficient and poor soils (Agarwal, 1989; Mia, 1998; Zadoks, 2002). Temperature, relative humidity and amount of rainfall during the crop season influence the development (Dhaliwal, 2018).  The management of the brown spot can be done mainly through resistant varieties, chemicals, biological, cultural, etc.

Pathogen:

 Breda de Haan in 1900 first described the fungus as Helminthosposium oryzae which was transferred to Drechslera oryzae by Subramanian and Jain (1966). Shoemaker (1959) referred it to Bipolaris oryzae as most of the conidia germinate from two end cells. The fungus produces inter and intra-cellular mycelium, which develops as greyish brown to dark brown mat on the infected tissues.
Favorable Condition for Pathogen:
Relative humidity (greater than 90%)
 High dose of Nitrogen
Optimum temperature, for infection range from 22 to 30°c and relative humidity of over 92% (Percich et al., 1997).
 Leaf must be wet for 8-24 hours.
Source of inoculum: Seed, collateral hosts, rice straw or stubble
Damage Symptoms:

The pathogen attacks the crop from seedling to milk stage. The symptoms appear as minute spots on the coleoptile, leaf blade, leaf sheath and glume, being most prominent on leaf blades and glumes. On leaves, typical spots are brown in colour with grey or whitish centre, cylindrical or oval in shape resembling sesame seeds usually with yellow halo while young spots are small, circular and may appear as dark brown or purplish brown dots.  The fungus also produces brown or grayish brown spots on the neck region as compared to blackening in case of neck blast (Sunder et al ., 2005)

                            Figure 1. Scale for the scoring of brown leaf spot of Rice ( IRRI, 2009)

 Different Methods of Management of Brown Spot in Rice:

1. Biological Method:

 Biological method of management is emerging as an alternative to the noxious chemical pesticide which has attained importance in modern agriculture to curtail the hazard of intensive use of toxic chemicals. Commercially available antagonistic Pseudomonas and Trichoderma species can suppress diseases by direct effect on the pathogen through mycoparasitism, antibiosis, and competition for iron/nutrients or by improving plant immunity through induced resistance (Singh et al., 2005). Isolates of fluorescent Pseudomonas from soil reduced the fungal growth and brown spot incidence (Ray et al., 1990). The bio-control agents viz., Trichoderma harzianum, T. viride, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens are rapidly used for control of brown spot. Seed treatments with Trichoderma viride or T.harzianum have reduced disease by 70 % (Biswas et al., 2010). Over 70 % disease reduction has been achieved too from the use of selected Pseudomonas spp. isolates (Joshi et al., 2007; Ludwigetal, 2009). T. harzianum has also been reported to reduce the disease intensity and significantly improve grain yield, total grain carbohydrate and protein, in addition to a significant improvement in the total photosynthetic pigments in rice leaves (Abdel-Fattah et al., 2007).

2. Cultural method

2.1 Use of resistant variety:

 Poonam variety  showed the maximum disease severity of 51.47% and kabeli had the lowest disease severity of 24.94% (Shrestha et al. 2017). The screening of fourteen rice varieties against brown leaf spot disease revealed that none of the varieties was immune. Among them, only HJ-G1 and HJ-G2 were found moderately resistant. Highest grain yield (5.10 t/ha) was found in HJ-G1 with least disease severity of 21.73%. Also, HJ-G1 had the lowest AUDPC values in all observation dates, with a total AUDPC value of 614.8. So, it is recommended to use HJ-G1 variety because it has highest yield in comparison to other varieties as well as tolerant to disease.(Paper 2008)(Adhikari 2013)(Scholar et al. 2015)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.2 Use of cow urine:
 Use of Cow urine as a bio-fungicide instead of fungicide is an alternative was to manage brown spot disease which is cost effective, can reduce environmental pollution and enhance the safety of agricultural produce and maintain agricultural sustainability. Nautiyal and coworkers reported controlling of plant pathogenic fungi like Colletotrichum capsici, Sclerotium rolfsii, Alternaria alternata, Penicillium species, Rhizoctonia solani, Phytophthora palmivora, Helminthosporium using cow dung and urine. The varying fertility levels were unable to show the suppression of the brown spot disease whereas the varying concentrations of cow urine spray showed positive impact on that disease suppression. The 100% cow urine spray was able to minimize the brown spot score but the control treatment exhibited maximum disease score (Sadhukhan and Bohra 2018).

2.3 Use of LCC method of nitrogen management :

The disease is known to occur in resource poor farmers’ fields where there is deficiency of water supply and nitrogenous fertilizers (Zadoks, 1974). Leaf colour chart (LCC) is known as one of the important innovation in the agricultural sector of the world. It was the first time prepared by scientists of Japan. They used this for estimation of chlorophyll formation rate in the rice (Oryza sativa L.) crop and then more various investigations on leaf colour chart were done which showed that it is important for better nitrogen management. N deficiency can easily be rectified with no devastation of plant parts.

3. Chemical method

 The application of the fungicides is the most effective management option for the control of brown spot of rice . The use of fungicides, such as iprodione, propiconazole, azoxystrobin, trifloxystrobin, and carbendazim are effective in disease management. Three different chemical fungicides; SAAF® (Carbendazim 12% + Mancozeb 63%), Tilt® (Propiconazole 25 EC) & Bavistin® (Carbendazim 50% W.P.) at three different doses of 1.5, 2 & 2.5 g (or ml) and a control plot. Among the different fungicides, Tilt® at the rate of 2 ml/lit water showed significantly lowest AUDPC value (373.7) followed by SAAF® at 2 gm/lit (374.9) while the highest value was shown by Bavistin® at 2gm/lit (590.1).Similarly, highest economic yield was obtained in SAAF® at 2gm/lit (5.220 t/h) followed by Tilt® at 2ml/lit water (5.210t/ha) and the lowest in Bavistin® at 1.5gm/lit (3.320t/ha). So, among different chemical fungicides, SAAF® at 2gm/lit being efficient, economical and easily accessible, farmers could be suggested for reducing the disease severity and subsequent increase in the yield of rice.(Shrestha et al. 2017). The efficacy evaluation of different chemical fungicides available in the market against brown leaf spot disease of rice showed that application of propiconazole for management of brown spot in field was most effective in both reducing the diseases severity and economic yield than other tested fungicides. So, propiconazole was recommended for the farmers(Poudel, Bharatee, and Acharya 2019).

4. Physical method:

4.1 Red-Light-Induced Resistance to Brown Spot:

When the leaves were kept under natural light or in the dark. The protective effect was also observed in intact rice plants inoculated with B. oryzae; the plants survived under red light, but most of them were killed by infection under natural light or dark condition. Red light did not affect fungal infection in onion epidermis cells or heat-shocked leaves of rice, and it did not affect cellulose digestion ability; this suggested that the protective effect is due to red-light-induced resistance. In addition, the degree of protection increased as the red light dosage increased, regardless of the order of the red light and natural light period, indicating that red-lightinduced resistance is time dependent.the results suggest that the tryptophan and phenylpropanoid pathways are involved in the red-light-induced resistance of rice to B. oryzae (Roxana et al., 2014).

Conclusion:

Rice is the 1st staple food grain crop of Nepal and has a significant role in food security of the Nepalese people. The disease has been reported to occur in all the rice growing countries including Japan, China, Burma, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Iran, Africa, South America, Russia, India, North America, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Australia, Malaya and Thailand (Gangopadhyay, 1983; Ou, 1985; Khalili et al., 2012). Foliar application of T. harzianum has been shown to reduce the disease intensity and significantly improve grain yield, total grain carbohydrates and proteins in addition to a significant improvement in the total photosynthetic pigment in the rice leaves. Cow urine as a bio fungicide and growth regulator is a gold to the poor farming communities and it is a key from waste to wealth innovation. Application of propiconazole for management of brown spot in field was most effective in both reducing the diseases severity and economic yield so, propiconazole was recommended for the farmers. Highest grain yield (5.10 t/ha) was found in HJ-G1 with least disease severity of 21.73% so HJ-G1 is recommended for Chitwan farmer.

References:

[1] Adhikari, Raj K. 2013. “Economics Of Organic Rice Production.” Journal of Agriculture and Environment 12: 97–103. https://doi.org/10.3126/aej.v12i0.7569

[2] Gupta, Vishal et al. 2018. “Management of Brown Spot of Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) Caused by Bipolaris Oryzae by Bio-Control Agents.” https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2018.704.393

[3] International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 7(04): 3472–77.

[4] Moradi, K- et al. 2015. “Brown Spot Resistance in Rice : A Review.” 1(5): 175–79.

[5]Paper, Review. 2008. “ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY TECHNOLOGIES FOR INCREASING RICE PRODUCTIVITY.” : 34–40. https://doi.org/10.3126/aej.v9i0.2114

[6] Poudel, Nabin Sharma, Prakash Bharatee, and Milan Acharya. 2019. “Influence of Different Chemical Fungicides against Rice Brown Leaf Spot Disease Caused by Bipolaris Oryzae.” 8(01): 441–46. https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2019.801.046

[7] Sadhukhan, Rahul, and Jitendra Singh Bohra. 2018. “Management of Brown Spot Disease in Rice ( Helminthosporium Oryzae ) by Spraying of Cow Urine.” (April).

[8] Scholar, Google, Global Impact Factor, Index Copernicus, and Open Access. 2015. “Available Online At :” 3: 56–60.

[9] Shrestha, Sunil et al. 2017. “Field Experiment to Evaluate the Efficacy of Different Doses of Chemical Fungicides against Rice Brown Leaf Spot Disease Caused by Bipolaris Oryzae L .” 5(3): 162–68. https://doi.org/10.12691/wjar-5-3-6

[10] Ray, S., Ghosh, M. and Mukharjee, N. (1990). Fluorescent pseudomonads for plant disease control. J. Mycopathol. Res. 28: 135-140.

[11] Singh, R.K., Singh, C.V. and Shukla, V.D. (2005). Phosphorus nutrition reduces brown spot incidence in rainfed upland rice. Intern. Rice Res. Notes 30: 31-32.

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