Category: Student`s Diary

Datura(Dhaturo): Know its cultivation practices, uses and medicinal value



Datura, a wildly growing plant from Solanaceae family, commonly known as Jimson weed or Devil’s snare is attributed with both poisonous and medicinal values. It contains varieties of toxic alkaloids such as atropine, hyoscyamine, and scopolamine. In Ayurveda, it has been used for curing various ailments including wounds, inflammation, rheumatism, sciatica, swellings, fever, and asthma.

  1. Classification:

Family: – Solanaceae

Genus: – Datura

Species: -D.stramonium L.

Common Names:Thorn Apple/ Jimson weed/ Mad apple/ Moonflower

Local name: Dhaturo

  1. Origin and Distribution:
  • Datura stramoniumis native to the eastern part of Central America, Mexico or the southern part of the United States
  • It has been introduced in many tropical, subtropical and even temperate regions of India,Bangladesh,Pakistan,Myanmar, Sri Lanka,USA,and Europe& Africa.
  • A naturalized weed in many African and Asian countries, but is probably seriously
  1. Plant Description:
  • Annual shrub that grows to about 1.5m tall mainly in the summer months (July – October).
  • Has green to purplish stems of this plant are stout and hollow.
  • Leaves simple, ovate, a coarsely serrate margin, measure 5-20 cm, acuminate at their tips.
  • Large, white, funnel shaped; axillary borne, symmetrical flowers grow to about 5-10cm long; petals 5 in number.
  • 5 stamens of equal length attached to the corolla near the base, and a long style with a 2-lobed stigma
  • Its fruits are large, thorny pods filled with seeds. Fruits open into 4 compartments when ripe.
  • Seeds numerous, yellowish brown to black, flattened, ovoid, elaiosome large, endosperm present.
  1. Cultivation:
  2. Climate and Soil
  • Grows well in areas having average minimum temperature 10-12 ⁰C in winter and 25-27 ⁰C in summer. It requires a well distributed rainfall of 50-100 cm/year. Grows up to the altitude of 2500 above sea level.
  • It can tolerate a range of soil types including sandy and loamy however well-drained loamy soil with regular moisture and high humus content is preferable.  pH ranges from neutral to very alkaline.
  • Datura prefers rich, calcareous Adding nitrogen fertilizerto the soil will increase the concentration of alkaloids present in the plant
  1. Propagation
  • Generally cultivated from seed sown either directly in the field or in a nursery bed.
  • Seeds are sown in open in May, in drill 3 feet apart, barely covered. Sown thinly, as the plants attain a good size and grow freely from seed. Thin out the young plants to a distance of 12 to 15 inches between each plant in the drill. The soil should be kept free from weeds in the early stages.
  • If the seed is sown in a nursery, seedlings are transplanted when 8–12 cm tall
  • Normal spacing is 70–100 cm
  1. Harvesting and Yield:
  • Deflowering increases the total alkaloid content in the leaves.
  • The leaves should be gathered when the plant is in full bloom and carefully dried. They are generally harvested in late summer, generally In August, the crop being cut by the sickle on a fine day in the morning, after the sun has dried off the dew, and the leaves stripped from the stem and dried carefully as quickly as possible,
  • The thorny capsules are gathered from the plants when they are quite ripe, but still green. They should then be dried in the sun for a few days, when they will split open and the seeds can be readily shaken out. The seeds can then be dried, either in the sun or by artificial heat. 
  • Yield: – 10.5 – 14.5 tons of fresh plant material and 750 – 1,200 kg of seeds is found in a hectare of land
  1. Chemical Evaluation:
  • The principle tropanealkaloids presents are: hyoscyamine, atropine and scopolamine and traces of scopine, belladodine; also contains coumarins (scopoletine, umbellipheron), 5% tannins and small amount of essential oils.
  • Total alkaloid content of the leaves is 0.426%, which is mainly atropine. The seeds contain 0.426% alkaloids, which is mainly hyoscyamine. The roots contain 0.35% hyoscyamine.
  1. Key Action:
  2. Medicinal Uses:
  • In modern medicine, it is used in tincture iodine, to treat bronchial asthma: relieves spams of bronchial muscles and Parkinson’s diseases.
  • It is antimuscarinic, hypnotic, analgesic, gastrointestinal and urinary antispasmodiccauses bradycardia at very low doses and higher doses induce tachycardia.
  • Leaves: The burning leaf smoke of datura is good to treat asthma and bronchitis, to treat heart problems like palpitations and hypertension, vapor of datura leaves infusion is used to relieve arthritis such as rheumatism and gout, paste of roasted leaves is applied over the area to relieve pain, datura leaves juice is used to treat earache. Boils can also be overcome by applying datura leaves as poultice.
  • Externally, the jimson seeds are used in treating of fistulas and abscesses. The oil extract from the datura seed is used to treat baldness and stimulate growth of hair.
  • The seedsimmersed in water or milk can also increase circulation to the genitals, which increases fertility and the health of the sperm.
  • There is a decent amount of ascorbic acidfound in datura, and additionally, the high concentration of antioxidants contributes to the strength of the immune system. 
  • It stimulates the production of white blood cells and neutralized various free radicals throughout various systems of the body.
  • The ethanol extract from datura leaves are used as acaricidal, repellent and oviposition deterrent properties against mites, also used as repellent against larva and mosquito.

Aloe Vera: Cultivation Practices, Medicinal Values and Other Uses

                  Aloe Vera


Aloe Vera is the oldest medicinal plant ever known and the most applied medicinal plant worldwide. Extracts of Aloe vera is a proven skin healer. Aloe vera help to soothe skin injuries affected by burning, skin irritations, cuts and insect bites, and its bactericidal properties relieve itching and skin swellings. Aloe vera Gel contains a large range of vitamins – even vitamin B12, Vitamin A, contains B-Group vitamins, Vitamin C, Vitamin E and folic acid. Aloe vera Gel contains important ingredients including 19 of the 20 amino acids needed by the human body and seven of the eight essential ones that just cannot be made.


Binomial Name: Aloe Vera (Aloe = a shining bitter substance; Vera = true.)

Nepali name: Ghiukumari

English name: Burn plant

Kingdom: Plantae

Family: Xanthorrhoeace

Genus: Aloe

Species: vera

Classification: Monocotyledons

Origin and Distribution:

Native to East and South Africa, The Canary Island and Spain. South East Asia, India, China, Nepal, Africa, Europe, Australia, West Indies.

Plant Description:

Aloe Vera is a stem less or very short-stemmed succulent (juicy) plant growing to 60–100 cm tall.

  • Leaves: Thick and fleshy, green to grey-green

Leaves consist of four layers:

  • Rind: The outer part of protective covering
  • Sap: A layer of bitter fluid, which helps to protect the plant from animals
  • Mucilage gel: The inner part of the leaf that is filleted out to make Aloe gel.
  • Inner gel: It contains about eight amino acid.
  • Inflorescence: Racemose
  • Flowers: Pedicellate, bisexual
  • Flowering period: July to September
  • Habitat: Succulent
  1. Cultivation:
  2. Climate and Soil:
  3. Tropical and sub-tropical, grown in warm, humid climate, sub temperate also.
  4. Good sunshine, 150 -200 cm rainfall/year.
  • Frost and hailstorms may cause damage the plant.
  1. Dry climate in preferred.
  2. Sandy loamy soil is the best suited for it.

Also thrives in slightly acidic soil.

  1. pH up to 8.5.
  2. Propagation:  It can be propagated root suckers, rhizome cuttings.
  3. Preparation of land:
  • 1-2 cross ploughing; 1 harrowing and leveling.
  • The soil is thoroughly free from the weeds.
  1. Sowing Season:
  • March – April, May-June – July, August -October.
  • It can be planted throughout the year.
  • Planting:
  • Medium sized root suckers are chosen and carefully dug out without damaging the parent plant at the base and can be directly planted in the prepared field.
  • About 15 -18 cm long root suckers or rhizome cuttings are planted in such a way that two-third portion of the root suckers or rhizome cuttings should be under the ground.
  • After harvest the rhizome can be dug out and made in to 5-6cm length cuttings with minimum of 2-3 nodes from matured stem.
  • These rhizome cuttings need to be planted is the Nursery beds or containers initially and soon after sprouting, they can be transplanted.
  • Moistened soil at planting time.
  • The seedlings should be protected from stray molds, harmful insects and certain fungi..
  1. Set rate or root sucker rate:
  • 12000 to 17000 sets/ha or about 20,000 – 25,000 of seedlings / ha
  1. Spacing:
  • Rows x Set – 50x25cm or 1m x 45cm apart or 60 x 30cm or 60 x 45cm.
  1. Manures and fertilizers:
  • 8-10q of FYM / Compost /ha.
  • 60:40:40kg of NPK / ha.
  • Supplement NPK should be applied near the root system.
  • Ammonium nitrate usually beneficial to Aloes.
  • 150 kg of NPK/ ha is also recommended
  • Irrigation: 4-5 irrigations. In dry season 8 -10 irrigations. Soon after planting the field should be irrigated. Water should not be allowed to stagnate near the plant.
  • Intercultural operations:
  • 3-4 weeding and hoeing.
  • Earthling up is needed because the aloes possess shallow root.
  • Weed should be plucked or cut and spread them as mulch between the lines of aloe.
  1. Diseases: Leaf spot, Alternaria alternate, Fusarium solani.
  2. Insect’s pests: Cut worms; Beetles.
  3. Harvesting and Yield:
  • Aloe pop take 18-24 months to fully mature.
  • Harvested 4 times a year.
  • At the rate of 3 leaves cut from each plant about 12 – 14 leaves are the harvest / plant / year.
  • The leaves are cut without causing damage to the plant.
  • Aloe plant can be removed manually or with the help of disc harrow or cultivator.
  • Average yield 120000-180000 kg/ha annually.
  • In good condition it gives 20 tons/ha.
  • The leaves cut off close to the plant are placed immediately, with the cut end downwards in a v-shaped wooden trough.
  • The trough is set on a sharp incline so that the juice, which trickles from the leaves very rapidly flows down its sides; and finally escapes by a hole at its lower end into a vessel placed beneath.
  • It takes about a quarter of an hour to cut leaves enough to fill a trough.
  • It gives a commercial yield from the second year up to the age of five years, after which it needs replanting.
  1. Chemical Evaluation:
  • The principal constituent is Aloin‘.
  • Aloe contains cathartic anthrax – glycosides and its active principal ranging from 4.5 to 25% of Aloin.
  • Other chemical constituents are; Aloesin, Aloesone, Barbaloin, Aloeemodin, Aloetic acid, Homonataloin, Choline, Chrysamminjo acid, Galacturonic acid, mucopolysaccharides, free anthraquinones and resins.
  • Vitamins namely A, B1, B2, B6, B12, C and E are available in Aloe vera.
  1. Key Action: detoxifier, antiseptic and tonic for the nervous system
  2. Medicinal Uses:
  • Aloe Vera is good for irritated or inflamed skin.
  • Aloe Vera helps in speeding up the process of healing of burns and other wounds.
  • Aloe Vera is good for hydrating, rejuvenating and toning for the skin.
  • Aloe Vera is used on facial tissues where it is promoted as a moisturizer and anti-irritant to reduce chafing of the nose.
  • Cosmetic companies commonly add sap or other derivatives from Aloe Vera to products such as makeup, tissues, moisturizers, soaps, sunscreens, incense, shaving cream, or shampoos.
  • Parts of plants are chewed to purify the blood. But they should not be brought into contact with teeth for long time, else, the enamel of teeth erodes causing sensitivity.
  • The flesh is boiled with black coffee and nine very strong cups drunk to induce abortion.
  • The juice of the leaves mixed with a little opium and applied to the forehead relieves headache.
  • Aloe Vera gel has antifungal, anti-bacterial and anti-viral effects and helps to heal minor wounds.
  • Liver disorders – Aloe juice with turmeric powder should be taken twice a day.
  • Difficult urination – Continuous diluted aloe juice should be taken time to time to alleviate this condition.
  • In wounds – Boil aloe leaves and take the fleshy part of the leaves over wounds.
  • As a cosmetic – Aloe is one of the best-known moisturizers and used in creams and shampoos.
  • Jaundice – A few drops of aloe juice is installed in the nostrils to control jaundice.

Orchid (Sunakhari): Cultivation Practices, Post-harvest Handling and Uses




Common name: Orchid

Botanical name: Many genus and species like Vanilla planifolia, Dendrobium nobile etc.

Family: Orchidaceae

Nepali name: Sungava, Sunakhari


Orchids are the loveliest and wondrous among all the flowering plants in the world. The exquisite beauty of flowers, brilliance of colors, remarkable range of sizes, manifold shapes, variation in the form, attractive habits and wide distribution in the earth have aroused the highest admiration for those charming plants throughout the world. These extraordinary plants belong to the very large and diverse family Orchidaceae. The orchids with their 35000 species and over 800 genera, constitute the largest family among the flowering plants and are the only major cut flower crop commercially grown and as a pot plant. In Nepal 350-500 species of orchids are found distributed in different eco-zones.



  1. Orchids are the most fascinating and beautiful of all flowers so they are used in indoor decoration and gardens.
  2. It is a multimillion-dollar business in the world.
  3. Orchid like Dendrobium nobile has some medicinal value as an antipyretic and tonic.
  4. Leaves of some orchid like Aoectochillus are used as vegetables.
  5. Dried and cured leaves and pseudo bulbs are sometimes used to prepare beverage and tea.
  6. Stem of Dendrobium spp. are used for weaving baskets.



  1. Based on growth habits
  2. Monopodial orchids
  3. One single main stem and continuous to grow indefinitely.
  4. Results in the pyramidal forms of the growth of the growth typical of conifers, e.g. Vanda, Rhynchostylis spp., Phalaenopsis etc.
  • This is also known as one footed orchid.
  1. Sympodial orchids
  2. In this, the growth in which the apical bud withers at the end of growing season.
  3. Growth is continuing by the lateral bud in the following season.
  • Bear pseudo bulbs and grow sideways.
  1. Known as many footed orchids.

e.g. Dendrobium spp., Cymbidium spp., Cattleya, Vanilla etc.

  1. Based on Habitat
  2. Epiphytes

They grow on the branches and stem of the trees and produce epiphytic roots. They absorb nutrients from the branches and stem of the tree but do not suck the sap of the plant, e.g. Vanda, Arides, Cymbidium etc.

  1. Saprophytes

Grow and survive on dead organic matter or body of the plant, e.g. Epipogon

  1. Lithophytes

Grow on rocks, e.g. Lipapis spp.

  1. Terrestrial

Grow on ground, e.g. Cattleya spp.


Climatic and environmental requirements



Cool orchids (10-13C): Cymbidium, Paphiopedilum

Intermediate orchids (13-18C): Cattleya, Laelia, Miltonia, Oncidium

Warm orchids (15.5-26.5C): Vanda, Rhynchostylis, Phalaenopsis, Dendrobium


Almost all orchids require 2400 foot candle except 2400 foot candle except Paphiopedilum do best in low light intensity i.e.800-1200 foot candle.


Eight hours light induced early flowering which additional light delay flowering but enhance vegetative growth. Flower initiation and development in cattleyas takes place under short days.


High RH (i.e.80%) is generally preferred by most of the orchids at daytime. Cymbidiums prefer RH between 40-70% in the greenhouse. Flower buds of Cattleya are more susceptible to infection at higher RH.


Free circulation of fresh air in the green house is necessary to maintain the uniformity of temperature.


Multiplication of orchids


Dividing large clumps to smaller clumps after they have reached a good size (10-12 number) e.g. Cattleya, Laelia, Cymbidium, Dendrobium etc.


Division is done when flowering is over during April-May.


Seed germination in orchids may be symbiotic or non-symbiotic. In the symbiotic process seeds require fungal association for their germination while non-symbiotic method involves the germination of seeds in an agar medium supplemented with various nutrients.


Similarly, orchids can be propagated by cutting and layering and meristem and shoot culture.


Orchid House

Under controlled condition, orchids can be grown in specially designed orchidarium or orchid houses, running north to south. Orchid houses can be made of materials like split bamboos, glass, shade, nets etc. For maintaining humidity, tank filled with water is placed in the house at the center, or artificial fogging nozzles are made.


Potting media

Plastic pot is preferred over mud pots as they render moisture for a longer interval. Monopodial orchids perform well in media containing chunks of hardwood charcoal while sympodial orchids in tree fern fiber media.


Manures and fertilizers

During vegetative growth, large amount of nitrogen is required while during flowering nitrogen content should be reduced and phosphate must be increased. Fertilization should be carried out only when the plant is actively producing new leaves. During active growing season, it needs heavy feeding regularly with 20:20:20 NPK at rate of 56 g per 380 liters of water. Fertilizer should be applied bimonthly.



The initial spikes are very small and are pinched off to improve the quality of next upcoming spike. The dead spikes are cut from the bottom. Stalks that turn yellow are completely removed from the main stem. Pruning helps the plant produce more flowers during the next season.



In general, orchid flower do not mature until 3-4 days after they open. Flower harvested before maturity may wilt soon. So, they must be harvested when the flowers are fully matured and their tissues are hardened.


Post-harvest practices

After harvesting spikes, they should be immediately dipped into water and stored at temperature of 5-70C. The flowers should be packed in airtight, waterproof, strong boxes. Wet cotton must be kept in the cut of flower stem wrapping with polythene wrapper. Foliar application of aluminum chloride at 500ppm,ammonium molybdate at 100ppm or boric acid at 1000ppm lengthened the vase life.

Mango: Physiological Disorders and Management



Scientific name: Mangifera indica

Family: Anacardiaceae

Origin: India, Bangladesh, Myanmar

Mode of pollination: Cross-pollination

Pollinator: Housefly

Fruit: Drupe

Climate and Soil

  • Tropical fruit can be grown up to 1100masl. Best grown up to 500m.
  • Ideal temperature: 24-27 degree centigrade.
  • Bright sunny days and moderate humidity required.
  • High humidity during fruiting period causes powdery mildew and anthracnose.
  • Can grow from Alluvial to Lateritic soil, except Black Cotton soil. pH: 5.5 -7.5


Very early varieties: Bangalora, Banganpalli

Early varieties: Bombay green, Bombay yellow, Himsagar, Kesar, Swarnarekha

Mid-season varieties: Krishnabhog, Alphonso, Langra, Zardalu, Dashehari

Late varieties: Neelum, Amrapali, Kaitki, Fajri, Mulgoa, Samarbahisth chausa

Fibrous varieties: Sukul, Baramasia

Fibreless varieties: Langra, Dashehari, Zardalu, Ranipasand

Moderately fibrous varieties: Fazli, Sipia

Regular bearing varieties: Amrapali, Neelum, Bangalora, Mallika


  • During Rainy season (August-September; at evening).
  • Pit dimension: 1m3 pits
  • Spacing: 8× 10m (HDP in Amrapali 2.5m * 2.5 m)

Flowering and fruiting

Flowering:  February- March

  • Generally, 8-10 months old shoots produced in spring and early summer produce flowers.
  • Mango tree produces blossoms and bears fruits mostly from terminal buds of its shoots.
  • Duration of flowering is 25 days
  • Normally 99% hermaphrodite flowers drop.
  • 15% of perfect flowers set fruit among which only 0.1- 0.25 % reaches maturity.

Problems and Physiological Disorders in Mango

  1. Fruit Drop

Natural drop of hermaphrodite flowers and young shoots are high accounting about 99% or more in Mango. Only 13-23% of the perfect flowers set fruit and only 0.1-0.25% reaches maturity. There are three different phases of fruit drop:

  1. Pin-head drop:


  • Lack of pollination.
  • Low stigmatic receptivity.
  • Defective perfect flowers having defective embryo sac development at anthesis.
  • Poor pollen transference due to insufficient pollination agents and due to rain or high humidity and cloudy weather.
  1. Post-setting drop:


  • Competition among developing fruitlets for nutrition.
  • Hormonal imbalance (deficiency of Auxin, GA, and Cytokinin coupled with a high level of inhibitors).
  1. May drop:


  • Drought or lack of available soil moisture.
  • Unfavorable climatic conditions during fruit development, e.g., wind and hailstorm.
  • High incidence of serious diseases like Powdery Mildew and Anthracnose and pests like Hoppers and Mealy-bug.

              Control of Fruit Drop:

  • Timely control of insect pests and diseases.
  • Cross pollination of varieties must be assured by avoiding isolated planting of the single varieties.
  • Regular irrigation during fruit development period.
  • Application of PGR like NAA, 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, GA3 @ 20ppm in last week of April and plant nutrients like Urea and Borax.
  1. Black Tip:
    • It is due to gases and coal fumes of brick kilns. The effect has been noticed up to 212m away from kilns.
    • It is characterized by the appearance of depressed spot of yellowing tissue at the distal end of fruits, which gradually increase in size, becomes brown and finally black. Such fruits never reach maturity and drop earlier.


  • Spraying of 0.6% Borax; before, during and after flowering.
  • Brick kilns should be restricted preferably 1.5 km to east and west and 0.75 km to the north and south of the orchard.
  1. Scorching of Leaves:
  • Brick red color appears towards the tip, along the margin of old leaves and subsequent collapsing of these tissues.
  • It is caused due to chloride ion toxicity and it decreases the potassium level in leaves.


  • Potassium sulphate should be used instead of Potassium chloride.
  • Irrigation water having high chlorine content must be avoided.
  1. Spongy Tissue:
  • Non-edible, yellowish, spongy-like patch with or without air pockets develop in the mesocarp of the fruit. It is specific in Alfonso cultivar.
  • Fruits remain unripe because of unhydrolyzed starch due to physiological and bio-chemical disturbance caused by heat in mature fruit at pre and post-harvest stage.


  • Harvesting mango when they are 75% mature rather than fully matured, reduces this disorder.
  • Mulching to reduce moisture stress.
  • Uses of wind break.
  • Sod culture.
  1. Biennial Bearing:
  • Biennial bearing is synonymous to alternate bearing which indicates yield variation in alternate years, i.e. one year of optimum or heavy fruiting is followed by a year of little or no fruiting.
  • Sometimes, periodicity of cropping and irregular bearing are erroneously used to describe the phenomenon of alternate bearing. However, irregular bearing and periodicity of cropping does not follow a systematic pattern like biennial/alternate bearing but an optimum yield is obtained only once in a number of years.
  • The tendency of irregular bearing is due to the poor management of orchard whereas biennial bearing is governed by genetic makeup.


  • Climatic factors:

Climatic factors do not cause basic biennial bearing but their adverse effect converts an on year into off year directly or by promoting the incidence of various diseases and pests. Similarly, frequent frost or low temperature during flowering period adversely affects the fruit set.

  • Growth pattern:

In most of the biennial bearing varieties, there will be no new growth after fruit harvest. Poor flowering in off year is the result of poor vegetative growth in the on year and the profuse flowering in the on year is the is the result of profuse vegetative growth in the off year.

  • Carbohydrate-Nitrogen ratio:

Higher C:N ratio in the shoots favors flower bud initiation in mango.

  • Hormonal control of flower initiation:

The presence of high level of growth substance like auxins, gibberellins induced more number of flowers whereas decrease in this substance reduces the percentage of the flower bud initiation. Exogenous application of GA reduces the flower bud initiation.

  • Cultural practices:

Irregularity of bearing in mango is a cultural problem which can be corrected by influencing nutritive condition and other management practices.

  • Crop load:

Generally, moderate blossoming is one of the chief conditions of annual fruit bearing in fruit tree. The biennial bearing habit can be minimized by undertaking some measures that reduces the number of fruit buds setting into fruits.

Measures to overcome:

  • De-blossoming and Thinning of fruits:

The excessive no. of flowers or fruit-lets should be thinned out before pea-size stage. The removal may be done by hand or by chemical spray (de-blossoming with 3-chloroisopropyl-N-phenyl carbonate @ 250-300 ppm).

  • Pruning:

It is performed for the removal of old shoots and diseased portion of branches to facilitate normal vegetative growth and stimulation of flowering buds.

  • Cultural practices:

Planting wind break, regular ploughing, optimum manuring at appropriate time, ringing and adequate irrigation helps to overcome biennial bearing.

  • Smudging:

Creation of gaseous atmosphere around orchard may also be helpful for flower initiation.

  • Uses of PGR:

Spray of NAA, 2,4,5-T and Ethrel (200 ppm) favor flower initiation.

  • Uses of regular bearing varieties:

Mallika, Amrapali, Neelam, Bangalora, Red small etc.






Gladiolus: Know the production technology & post harvest techniques

      Production Practices of Gladiolus


Common name:Gladiolus

Botanical name:Gladiolus gandavensis


The name gladiolus was coined by Pliny the Elder.It is derived from the greek word ‘’gladius’’,meaning sword on account of its sword shaped foliage.Therefore,gladiolus is called Sword Lily.

Referring to the corm,gladiolus is known as the ‘’Queen of bulbous plants’’.



According to the size of flower,gladiolus is classified as:

  1. Grandiflorus:Large and exhibition type
  2. Primulinus:Used as a cut flower
  3. Pixiola:Small flower with long keeping quality,used for pot culture and bedding purpose
  4. Butterfly:Medium size of the flower,attractive blotches and throat marking.



  1. Gladiolus is a very popular flowering plant in international cut flower trade.
  2. Its magnificent inflorescence with a variety of colours has made it attractive for use in herbaceous borders,beddings,pots and for cut flowers.
  3. For cutflower,primulinus types are better as more spikes often come out from a corm and they may be planted in isolated borders.
  4. Grandiflorus and primulinus types look very attractive in mixed flower borders,but primulinus types are preferred as these donot need stalking,and so,are also good for bedding.


Cultivation practices



Optimum growth of gladiolus occurs at cool climate i.e. between the temperature range of 10-25 C.20 degree celsius is considered optimum for cultivation,whereas night temperature should not exceed 16 C.

Low night temperature induces flower blasting.The plant cannot tolerate frost.



Gladiolus requires at least 80% of total sunlight.Most of the varieties of gladiolus require light period of 8 hours a day.

Long day are proved to be better yield and for production of better quality flower spike over short day.Therefore,the cultivating area should be oriented in south-east direction and must allow uninterrupted sunlight.


Light intensity

Gladiolus prefers high light intensity but very high intensities without the provision for temperature control adversely affect the growth,although low light intensity is the main cause for failure in flowering.

The quality of the flower spikes and yield is better in a long day condition than short days.



Gladiolus can grow on wide range of soil from light sandy to clay loam.Soil that is slightly acidic I.e. pH between 5.5 -6.5 is suitable for gladiolus.

Proper drainage condition is a must for gladiolus.Raised bed should be made in case of wet soil.



Gladiolus can be propagated by seed,corms,cormels as well as by tissue culture technique.However corm and cormels are most widely used material.

Corms of small size i.e. 2.5 cm diameter are referred as cormels.



Gladiolus is normally a seven crop from planting to the lifting of corms.In hills of Nepal,it is planted during March-April and in plains it is planted during late September-January.

Well treated corm measuring more than 5 cm should be used for planting.Planting corms are identified at by the presence of rootlets at the base.


Planting distance

Distance varies with the cultivar,corm size and the purpose for which the plants are grown.

Close planting though increases the flowering shoots but it reduces flower number per spike and duration of flowering.The optimum planting distance is 20 x 20 cm.


Manuring and fertilizer

Manorial dosage of 250 kg of FYM,1.5:1.4:1.4 lg of NPK and 120 g of zinc per 100 meter square are appropriate for fertilizing the gladiolus.

Gladiolus should not be fertilized with excessive nitrogen because this encourages plants to form long and weak flower stalk.In general iron deficiency occurs,so iron-chelate application during planting is required.




Before planting,the field should have sufficient moisture so that no watering is required till sprouting.The increase in the soil moisture content increases corm diameter and weight.

Normally,for sandy loam soil irrigation is required at the interval of 7-10 days.4th leaf stage and flower initiation stage are most sensitive to water stage.



Spikes are harvested at morning.For distant market ,the cutting should be done at the tight bud stage with at least four leaves left on the plant and first floret blushes its color.

For local market,it is harvested when the basal floret is fully open.The spikes should be given a slant cut at the base of the long spike with a sharp knife.Then the harvested spikes are to be immersed up to its neck in a bucket full of water.


Post- harvest practices

1.Lifting of corm

After 45 days of spike harvest,the corm and cormels are lifted from the field and stored.The best time to lift corm is until all of the plant matter has turned brown and died back.


Gladiolus spikes are graded into following five grades according to the spike length and number of floret present.

Grade Spike length cm Number of florets
Fancy >107 16
Special >96 to 107 15
Standard >81 to 96 12
Utility <81 10


The cut spikes should be immediately placed in cold water at 6-11 C temperature if the market is near.However,for distant market they are refrigerated i.e. at 2.3 -2-8 C.


Spikes are submerged in water,if they are intended to be to the local market.But for distant market,they are packed in cardboard or wooden boxes.

The box prepared for transportation should be perforated at several places for regulation of air.

  1. Vase-life

The floral preservative solution or vase solution must contain at least a source of carbohydrate and a bactercide.600 ppm 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate with 4% sucrose is effective for increasing the water uptake and decreasing vascular blockage.0.1% AlSO4 is found equally effective as 8-HQC/HQS.

Normally 50 ppm silver nitrate or silver thiosulphate is used.

Fertilizer calculation Click here.

Hemp Plant: Introduction, uses & cultivation techniques in Nepal


Note: Production & Sale of hemp plant is legally not permitted in Nepal. This article is solely for information purposes & not for encouraging in illegal production & trade of hemp.


Common name: Hemp

Scientific name: Cannabis sativa

Family: Cannabaceae

Hemp is an annual plant of Cannabis family, but it is not Marijuana. According to David P. West, Ph.D., writing for the North American Industrial Hemp Council, there are several plants in genus cannabis with the unique molecular compounds called cannabinoids, of which many have been identified. However, there are two primary cannabinoids that are of importance in hemp classification. On the one hand, tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, is the psychoactive ingredient in plants of the cannabis genus, produces the typical effects of marijuana. On the other hand, cannabinoid, CBD, is an anti-psychoactive ingredient. Cannabis plants used as drugs are high in THC and low in CBD. Likewise, industrial hemps are high in CBD and low in THC. West reports the levels of THC in industrial hemp are so low that no one could get high from smoking it; it is definitively not marijuana (Investing News Network, 2014).


Hemp is a good plant with bad reputation. It can be used to make varieties of items due to its adaptable properties. Hemp fiber is a traditional material for making ropes, paper, hemp clothes, biodegradable plastics, biofuels, textiles, cosmetics, medicine and even ethanol. Its seeds can be mixed in bird feed and also utilized for the production of oil-based paints.

Hemp is a multipurpose plant with some exceptions; such as:

  • Hemp fiber is eight times stretchable and four times durable than cotton.
  • Hemp clothes take in moisture up to 30% of its weight and dry quickly.
  • Cultivation of hemp needs less water because it can resist drought.
  • It needs few or no insecticides and pesticides because it is resistant to bacteria, mold, and mildew.
  • Hemp grown in one acre of land can produce 250% or more fabric than cotton.

Climate & Soil:

  • Hemp plant is best adapted to well-drained soil with a pH between 6.0 and 7.0.
  • Hemp does not grow well on wet soils or those with a heavy clay content.
  • It is sensitive to soil crusting and soil compaction, that can occur on these soils.
  • Soil temperature of 10 degree Celsius is best suited for quality hemp production.
  • The growing cycle for hemp plant is approximately 108-120 days, during which these growing conditions should remain relatively stable & consistent.

Field Preparation:

  • One primary tillage with cultivator followed by 2-3 harrowing with rotavator making fine tilth.
  • Then prepare a firm, shallow bed for the most uniformity in seeding depths, not unlike for planting clover or alfalfa.

 Planting Time & Planting material:

  • Hemp should be planted in May to early June in Hill condition
  • For Terai condition February to April.
  • Short day plant & will begin to mature when day length is less than 12 hours of sunlight.


  • Varieties come in various heights, including those that are medium height (6-7 feet tall), semi-dwarf (4-5 feet tall), & dwarf (3-4 feet tall).
  • Cannabis sativa subspp. sativavar. sativa is variety grown for industrial use, while C. sativa subspp. indica generally has poor fiber quality and female buds from this variety are primarily used for recreational and medicinal purposes.

Planting Distance:

  • Sow seeds relatively closely together, i.e. four inches, depending on the size of growing space and the yield of desired crop.
  • Plant seeds at a depth of around 1/2 to 3/4 inch & aim for seeding in 15-inch to 30-inch rows at a rate of 1406 to 1968 grams per ropani.
  • On sowing seeds mechanically, then use conventional seeding equipment to plant hemp seeds with no other special equipment required.
  • Either a grain drill or a corn planter will be better. Once the seeds are planted, it is recommended to roll and pack the soil.

Manuring & fertilization:

  • Hemp plant are best when grown in organic condition as they don`t require huge supplementary nutrients.
  • 90-135 : 45 : 65 kg NPK/ha is recommended with mild 10-20% organic content in soil according to (Canadian Hemp Trade Alliance) CHTA.
  • Apply nitrogen in 2-3 split dose i.e. ½ at field preparation & remaining half at weeding stage 25-30 days after sowing & next split at 40-50 days.


  • Irrigate the planted seeds sufficiently, especially during their first six weeks in the soil.
  • Even though hemp plants are generally drought tolerant, they can be more fragile and sensitive to dryness in those early days.


  • Weed crop competition is higher during the early stages.
  • One or 2 hand weeding at 25-30 days after sowing is crucial for better crop establishment & production.


  • About 90 to 100 days after sowing, the head of the hemp plant is considered to have fully matured.
  • Start to observe seed heads maturing from the bottom and moving upward to reach completion.
  • After the seed bracts have fully matured, they expose the seeds they contain, allowing you to air dry them naturally.
  • Finally, approximately 100 to 120 days after the seeds were planted (around September or October), the plant is primed (ready) for harvest.

Post-harvest processing:

  • After harvesting the hemp, clean all foreign material from the grain and prepare it for storage until the time you’re ready to process it.
  • Ensure it is properly aerated immediately to avoid spoiling. Dry hemp grain to approximately 9% moisture.
  • The best for drying hemp is a belt conveyor, though we can use an auger as well, as long as we run it slow and full. This will help keep seeds from cracking.


Growing hemp plant in best cultivation practice can yield net profit upto 10 thousands per ropani i.e.


Investing News Network. (2014, April 18). An Introduction to Hemp.



Crop plant domestication has targeted a variety of traits, including synchronous development of ovules and stamens to maximize fertilization and seed production. Wheat plant bears autogamous, self-pollinating flower which is very attractive for guaranteeing yield but at the same time frustrating for the researchers and breeders trying to develop hybrids through cross-pollination. A new discovery, characterizing the developmental physiology of wheat florets opening after a few days post-anthesis (second opening), provides an additional opportunity for pollination, facilitates out-crossing and provides a method to further understand the regulation of wheat flower architecture and development. (Okada T, 2017)


First flower opening:

Generally, at anthesis in wheat, floret first opening driven by lodicule swelling, anther dehiscence and filament elongation occur simultaneously, that also, only for less than 30 minutes and then closes ensuring self-fertilization (Heslop-Harrison Y, 1996). This flower opening is caused due to increased turgidity of lodicules which pushes the anthers outward. Since this extrusion occurs post-anthesis and flower opens only for short duration, there is very less chance (<1%) to produce F1 hybrid (Adelaide, 2018). More the duration of flower opening, more will be the probability for out-crossing.

Second flower opening:

The second opening of flower occurs due to the enlargement of unfertilized ovary. The fertilized ovaries increase in size vertically with the degradation of pericarp whereas the unfertilized ovaries swell up radially along with the pericarp cells remaining intact and enlarging but show only a slight increase in vertical direction. This enlargement exceeds the breadth of lemma and forces lemma and palea apart resulting the opening of flower for the second time (Nansamba, 2017). This second opening can last for several days providing better opportunities for cross-pollination.

To address the question, when and how does the ovary detect the absence of pollination and begin to enlarge, different researches were held and it was found that the width and depth of male-sterile ovaries were already significantly larger than male-fertile ovaries at 3 DF (days after fertilization). This indicates that the enlargement of ovary initiates at 3 DF in male-sterile lines.

Now, there is a dilemma, how the ovary could remain unfertilized till the second opening of flower?

Wheat flower is autogamous and self-pollinating and hence, the pollination is completed prior to extrusion of anthers i.e. first opening. Therefore, there is insignificant probability of flower being out-crossed.

There are two popular ways to prevent self-fertilization in wheat (Mette MF, 2015):

  • First is, chemical application to the female receptor line or emasculation. This is expensive, can give variable results and requires precision spraying in favorable weather conditions to avoid triggering sterility in the male donor lines, which are grown in close proximity (Whitford R, 2013).
  • The second method involves the use of male-sterile lines that do not produce pollen. It is favorable because it needs no chemical manipulation, however, the use of male-sterile lines only is not sufficient as they must also open to allow cross-pollination by neighboring male pollen donor line. The male-sterile lines have prolonged second opening facilitated by the swollen ovary (Okada T, 2017).

The row of male donor line and female receptor line is arranged in a close proximity with male pollen donor line taller than the female receptive line which extrudes anther prior to dehiscence to release pollen. The pollen gets dispersed over male-sterile florets. The male-sterile florets open due to radial swelling of unfertilized ovary so that it can receive the pollen and increase the chance of fertilization and survival. In this whole process, breeder should keep in mind that the female receptive line is isolated from the contact of all other undesired pollen. For this, the spikes should be covered with glycine bag immediately after emasculation. Isolation can also be done as spatial isolation (isolation by distance) or temporal isolation (isolation by time i.e. by altering the sowing time or varietal time etc.)

You may wonder, why not the laboratory-work then??

Well, we are all acquainted with the fact that, first opening of flower lasts only for few hours and capturing the pollen at right stage is a lottery. Thus, collecting pollen from the field and fertilizing with ovule at correct stage with success is impracticable. Instead, using lines with an open receptive female flower would make it possible to pollinate by wind, dramatically increasing the chance for successful fertilization.


Fertilization is crucial in plant’s life cycle mostly for evolution and to continue its race. When fertilization fails, plant tends to increase the probability of new fertilization by altering their behavioral pattern like flowering pattern and so on. One of the noble examples is second opening of flower in wheat. This research characterizes the cross-talk between fertilization, ovule development and physiology of flowers in self-pollinating cereal crops. Moreover, it reveals the alteration in function of different floral parts such as the nutrients accumulated in pericarp for seed development is redirected for a different function, specifically the opening of the flower. The outcomes and findings of this research can also be applied to different plant species which would further aid in sustainable grain production.


Adelaide, U. o. (2018, February 15). Open flower for Wheat Seed Production. Research Stories.

Heslop-Harrison Y, H.-H. J. (1996). Lodicule function and filament extension in the grasses: potassium ion movement and tissue specialization. Annals of Botany 77, 573-582.

Mette MF, G. M. (2015). Hybrid breeding in wheat. In: Ogihara Y, Takumi S, Handa H, . Advances in wheat genetics: from genome to field.eds.Tokyo:Springer.

Nansamba, M. &. (2017). Unfertilized ovary pushes wheat flower open for cross-pollination. Journal of Experimental Botany.

Okada T, J. R. (2017). Unfertilized ovary pushes wheat flower open for cross-pollination. Journal of Experimental Botany68, 395–408.

Whitford R, F. D. (2013). Hybrid breeding in wheat: technologies to improve hybrid wheat seed production. Whitford R ,Fleury D,Reif JC,Garcia M,Okada T,Korzun V,Langridge P. 201Journal of Experimental Botany64,, 5411–5428.



Are you planning to publish Scientific Review Article ? Know these quick guidelines

               Guidelines for Writing Review Article

What is Review Article?

  • A critical, constructive analysis of the literature in a specific field through summary, classification, analysis, comparison.
  • A scientific writing relying on previously published literature or data. New data from the author’s experiments aren`t presented (with exceptions: some reviews contain new data).
  • A stand-alone publication. Literature reviews as integral part of master theses, doctoral theses or grant proposals will not be considered here. However, tips presented in this guideline are transferable to these text types.

Let us Know

Function of A Review Article

  • To organize literature
  • To evaluate literature
  • To identify patterns and trends in the literature
  • To synthesize literature
  • To identify research gaps and recommend new research areas.

Here are some quick steps for writing successful scientific review Article.

  1. Define a Topic & Audience

How to choose which topic to review?

There are so many issues in contemporary science that you could spend a long time of attending conferences and reading the literature just pondering what to review. On the other hand, if you take several years to choose, several other people may have had the same idea in the meantime. On the other hand, only a well-considered topic is likely to lead to a brilliant literature review. The topic must at least be:

  • interesting to you (ideally, you should have come across a series of recent papers related to your line of work that call for a critical summary),
  • an important aspect of the field (so that many readers will be interested in the review and there will be enough material to write it), and
  • a well-defined issue (otherwise you could potentially include thousands of publications, which would make the review unhelpful).

Ideas for potential reviews may come from papers providing lists of key research questions to be answered, but also from serendipitous moments during desultory reading and discussions. In addition to choosing your topic, you should also select a target audience. In some cases, the topic (e.g., web services in computational biology) will automatically define an audience (e.g., computational biologists), but that same topic may also be of interest to neighboring fields (e.g., Information science, biology, etc ).

  1. Search & Research the Literature

After having chosen your topic and audience, start by checking the literature and downloading relevant papers. Five pieces of advice here:

  • keep track of the search items you use (so that your search can be replicated),
  • keep a list of papers whose pdfs you cannot access immediately (so as to retrieve them later with alternative strategies),
  • use a paper management system (e.g., Mendeley, Papers, Sente),
  • define early in the process some criteria for exclusion of irrelevant papers (these criteria can then be described in the review to help in defining its scope), and
  • do not just look for research papers in the area you wish to review, but also seek previous reviews.
  1. Take Notes While Reading:
  • If you read the papers first, and only afterwards start writing the review, you will need a very good memory to remember who wrote what, and what your impressions and associations were while reading each single paper.
  • Our advice is, while reading, to start writing down interesting pieces of information, insights about how to organize the review, and thoughts on what to write. This way, by the time you have read the literature you selected, you will already have a rough content of the review.
  • Of course, this draft will still need much rewriting, restructuring, and rethinking to obtain a text with a coherent argument, but you will have avoided the danger posed by staring at a blank document.
  • Be careful when taking notes to use quotation marks if you are provisionally copying verbatim from the literature. It is said then to reformulate such quotes with your own words in the final draft. It is important to be careful in noting the references already at this stage, so as to avoid misattributions.
  1. Choose Type of Review You Wish to Review
  • After having taken notes while reading the literature, you will have a rough idea of the amount of material available for the review.
  • This is probably a good time to decide whether to go for a mini- or a full review. Some journals are now favoring the publication of rather short reviews focusing on the last few years, with a limit on the number of words and citations.
  • A mini-review is not necessarily a minor review: it may well attract more attention from busy readers, although it will inevitably simplify some issues and leave out some relevant material due to space limitations.
  • A full review will have the advantage of more freedom to cover in detail the complexities of a particular scientific development, but may then be left in the pile of the very important papers “to be read” by readers with little time to spare for major monographs.
  1. Be critical & Consistent:

Reviewing the literature is not stamp collecting. A good review doesn`t just summarize the literature, but discusses it critically, identifies methodological problems, and points out research gaps. After having read a review of the literature, a reader should have a rough idea of:

  • the major achievements in the reviewed field,
  • the main areas of debate, and
  • the outstanding research questions.
  1. Find A logical Structure
  • Like the well-baked cake, a good review has a number of telling features: it is worth the reader’s time, timely, systematic, well written, focused, and critical.
  • It also needs a good structure. With reviews, the usual subdivision of research papers into introduction, methods, results, and discussion does not work or is rarely used.
  • How can you organize the flow of the main body of the review so that the reader will be drawn into and guided through it?
  • It is generally helpful to draw a conceptual scheme of the review, e.g., with mind-mapping techniques. Such diagrams can help recognize a logical way to order and link the various sections of a review.
  • This is the case not just at the writing stage, but also for readers if the diagram is included in the review as a figure. A careful selection of diagram and figures relevant to the reviewed topic can be very helpful to structure the text too.
  1. Make use of Feedback
  • Feedback, is vital to writing a good review, and should be sought from a variety of colleagues, so as to obtain a diversity of views on the draft.
  • This may lead in some cases to conflicting views on the merits of the paper, and on how to improve it, but such a situation is better than the absence of feedback.
  • A diversity of feedback perspectives on a literature review can help identify where the consensus view stands in the landscape of the current scientific understanding of an issue

Note: Include Your Own Relevant Research but be Objective.

  1. Be Updated & Keep Eye on old papers:
  • Given the progressive acceleration in the publication of scientific papers, today’s reviews of the literature need awareness not just of the overall direction and achievements of a field of inquiry, but also of the latest studies, so as not to become out-of-date before they have been published.
  • Actually, a literature review should not identify as a major research gap an issue that has just been addressed in a series of papers in press (the same applies, of course, to older, overlooked studies (“sleeping beauties”).
  • Inevitably, new papers on the reviewed topic (including independently written literature reviews) will appear from all quarters after the review has been published, so that there may soon be the need for an updated review. But this is the nature of science. We wish everybody good luck with writing a review of the literature.
  1. Acknowledgement:

Many thanks to M. Adhikari, P. Neupane, A. Liladhar & so on for insights and discussions, and to N. Pandey for helpful comments on a previous workout.


Insert References like we have taken reference of the following articles.

Are you Planning to Publish Research Article? Know these basic consideration before you start

                                     Basic Consideration to write Biological Research Article

4th Dec, 2019 Chitwan;

Generally, most types of research article follow a classical pattern, answering a logical series of questions mentioned below:

Introduction                     what led to the work and what are the objectives?
Materials                          what was used? Methods what was done?
Results                             what happened?
Discussion                       what does it mean?
Conclusions                    what are the implications of the results?
Acknowledgements       who helped?
References                      who is referred to in the text?

This is known as the IMRAD (Introduction, Materials, Results and Discussion) structure, and have become the main pattern for research articles in many disciplines. This classical structure does not fit some disciplines, such as sociology and economics, and most medical journals use a different structure. For example, the journal Nature Medicine prints the Methods section last, and in smaller type. The IMRAD structure is very common in the natural sciences(like Agriculture), and a clear understanding of how each part is put together will be useful to most scientists. Note that, as far as publishers are concerned, the title, authors, addresses and abstract are also essential parts of the paper.


It is extremely important to write a good title for a paper. The title attracts the interest of the reader and it is used in bibliographic information services, so it needs to be accurate and informative. The object is to include as much information as you can in as few words as possible. Put the most important part of your work at the start of title, where it will be easiest for the reader scanning a list to see. You can write your title as one statement, or use the main/subtitle format.

For example, you can write: Effects of drought, aging and phosphorus status on leaf acid phosphatase activity in rice
Or you can write: Acid phosphatase activity in rice leaves: effects of drought, aging and phosphorus status
Readers will assume that the subject that comes first in the title is the main focus of the paper, so be sure to reflect that in the paper.
There is a third way of writing a title; that is to make a statement: Acid phosphatase activity in rice leaves is decreased by drought, aging and phosphorus status This is a very clear approach, almost a mini-summary of the paper.


The first author should be the person who carried out most of the work reported, with other workers mentioned in decreasing order of contribution. The scientist who oversaw the work is usually placed last. All people who are listed as authors must be aware of the paper, must have agreed to be named as an author, and must have had the opportunity to contribute to and comment on the paper. Some journal websites comment on authorship, so check on the website of your target journal. Give the names of all authors, in the style the journal specifies.

For example, this may be the first name in full, the middle initial only, and the last name in full. Most journals do not print authors’ qualifications.
Do not make a distinction between men and women – do not write:

M.S. Adhikari and Prajina Kumari. Neupane. Indicate which author should receive correspondence and proofs (the corresponding author), with their email and full postal address.


 You should give an address for each author you mention on the title page – that is, the address of the author at the time when the work was done. If any authors have moved, include a footnote with their present address.


An abstract represents the contents of the article in short form. There are three types of abstract: informative, indicative and structured. There is often confusion about the words ‘Abstract’ and ‘Summary’. A summary restates the main findings and conclusions of a paper, and is written for people who have already read the paper. An abstract is an abbreviated version of the paper, written for people who may never read the complete version. So, a summary is not the same as an abstract, although some journals call the abstracts of the articles they publish ‘summaries.’


Informative abstracts

An informative abstract should answer the following questions: –
Why did you start?
What did you do, and how?
What did you find?
What do your findings mean?

 The abstract must be written so that it can be read on its own, for example, if it is output from a bibliographic retrieval system. Do not waste words by repeating the title in the abstract. Keep to 250 words or fewer for an article of 2000–5000 words, and to about 100 words for a short communication, depending on the journal’s requirements. If the reason for doing the study is not clear from the title or the rest of the abstract, state the purpose. Say what you studied and what methods you used. Give your main findings concisely and summarize your conclusions. Try to mention in the abstract all the main information covered in the paper. Be as brief and as specific as possible, and write with non-specialists in mind. Do not refer in the abstract to research that is not in the paper. Generally speaking, a short abstract should be written as a single paragraph. To help computerized text searching, use significant words from the text in the abstract. Avoid unfamiliar terms, acronyms, abbreviations or symbols; if you must use them, define them at first mention. Use generic names, not trade names, for chemicals and drugs, except when trade names are the most accurate way to describe such substances. Identify living organisms by their Latin (binomial) names. Avoid citing other work; if you must include a citation, for example to a paper that inspired your investigation, include a short form of the bibliographic details in the abstract itself – “as M.S. Adhikari pointed out (J. Rice Res. 2005; 4: 2111–13)” – for the benefit of readers who will read only the abstract.

Indicative abstracts

 Indicative abstracts contain general statements describing what is in the text, giving readers a general idea of the contents of the paper, but little, if any, specific detail. They are more common in field reports, long papers such as review articles, and for books or chapters in books. They are the lazy way of writing an abstract; many journals will ask for a more informative version.

Structured abstracts

Some journals now ask for an abstract with a specific structure, especially in the medical area, for reports of clinical trials. This sort of abstract is written mostly as a series of points, although the Results and Conclusions sections should be in sentence form. If your target journal wants a structured abstract, the Instructions to Authors will tell you what headings to use and how long the abstract should be. Annals of Botany requests a structured abstract not exceeding 300 words made up of bulleted headings as follows: Background and Aims; Methods; Key Results; Conclusions.

Key words

Key words or phrases for indexing are often printed at the end of an abstract. If the journal asks for key words, choose the most important and most specific terms you can find in your paper. Refer to previously published articles in the journal of choice for guidance. To help readers to find your paper, do not include very general topics such as ‘soil’ or ‘potato’. Be specific, to allow readers to focus on your work. Include the binomial of the main species you are working with. Note that essential words in the title should be repeated in the key words since these, rather than the title, are used in some electronic searches.


 The Introduction should answer the questions “Why did you do the work?” and “What did you want to find out?” It should contain three parts:
–  the background to the work and a brief review of the relevant literature, to allow the reader to evaluate the present work;
 –  the logic that led you to do the work, and your hypothesis;
 –  a clear statement of the objectives of the work. You need to show the logical development of your theory or objective within the context of existing work. Explain how your hypothesis came about, briefly reviewing previous published work on the subject. Use references to support everything you say. Most authors initially make the Introduction too long by including too much background material, for example, “This crop is one of the most important food crops in the world”. If you have exceeded two pages of typing, you have probably written too much.

Materials and Methods

Here the questions are “What did you use?” and “What did you do?” In this section, you only describe the materials you used, and the methods you used in the work. You do not need to interpret anything. However, you must make sure you have described everything in sufficient detail so that another scientist could repeat your experiment after reading the description.

Justify your choice of one method or treatment over the others available. State the assumptions that you have made. This will allow your readers to understand the purpose of the methods you are about to describe. Follow a logical order; this section falls naturally into two sections: the Materials first, then the Methods.


Describe all the materials – chemicals, animals, plants, equipment, etc. – that you used. Identify chemical compounds (fertilizers, etc.) so that other workers will be able to obtain the same materials. If you use trade names, you should include the full chemical name or active ingredient the first time you mention it. Some journals ask you to give the name and address of the supplier or manufacturer of the material.

Use internationally recognized standards for naming materials, and also use metric units, standard nomenclature, etc. Give the full genus, species, race, strain, cultivar or line of any experimental plants, animals or microorganisms you used. Species names can be abbreviated once they have been fully described.

Check the journal’s Instructions to Authors for correct usage and terminology.


 In this section, you answer the questions “What did you do?” and “How did you do it?”. Describe your experiments in a logical order. If you have used well known methods, just give their names and a reference, but if you made any changes, these should be explained. The readers of the paper will be scientists themselves, so you do not need to describe familiar things in detail. Be brief, but do not leave out important information such as sizes or volumes.


Describe the statistical techniques you used, but do not go into detail. Most tests are well known and do not need much description. If a technique is not so well known, then you can give a reference. Only if the method is new or original should you describe it in detail. If a journal demands a certain type of statistical treatment, then you must follow the recommendations exactly.


 In the Results, you describe what happened in your experiments. You can present your results making no comment on them, giving your own interpretations later in the Discussion section. Another approach is to interpret the results up to a point, to make some connections between the different statements, but to give more detail in a separate Discussion section. A third way is to combine the results with a discussion of each point.

Whichever way you choose, you should present the results in a sequence that corresponds to your original objectives. Report any negative results that will influence your interpretation later on. Present all the relevant results in this section so that you do not need to introduce new material in the Discussion. Remember your original purpose. In an experimental paper, your objectives tell you what you should be writing about. Results that do not relate to them should not be mentioned.

Many journals nowadays will allow you to upload large tables or other forms of data to a dedicated website and allow you to link to that site in your paper. This allows you the freedom to publish complete data sets, without trying to include them all in your limited-size paper.


Figures and tables

Write in relation to tables and figures that you have already prepared. There is no need to repeat boring lists of statistics in the text when they are already in the tables or figures. Describe the overall results, not each individual value.

Do not say:
“The results of experiment A are reported in Table 1”;
say instead:

“The treatment used in experiment A gave 50% greater yield than the control (table 1)”. Make sure you mention every table and figure in the text, and include each table and figure that you mention.


 In the Discussion, you must answer the questions: “What do my results mean?”, “Why did this happen?” and “What are the implications?”. This is the most thoughtful and demanding section of the paper, but also the most important. You must interpret your results for the readers so that they can understand the meaning of your findings. You need to distinguish among a mass of information and select that which is most relevant to your argument. Use a series of findings or statements to come to a clear conclusion. This conclusion must match your originally stated objective.

Use the Discussion to interpret your results, giving particular attention to the hypothesis or objectives that you put forward in the Introduction. ‘Discussion’ is really short for ‘Discussion of results’. It is not a section in which you review the literature on the subject. All literature cited must have the function of supporting arguments about your results. Relate your findings to previous work, and if they do not agree with your work, then discuss why not. Discuss any negative results.

In this section, you discuss why something happened and why things did not, highlight the strengths and explain the weaknesses of your work. You discuss the relevance of your research to the specific field, point out how it relates to other fields, and make recommendations from your work. You can also mention work in progress, and point out unanswered questions and possible avenues of further research.

 Say what is important, with statements such as “The most important aspect of these results is …”. But do not use this formula too often, as readers will quickly tire of hearing how ‘important’ your work is.

One of the most common faults of the Discussion is that it is too long. It may be difficult to follow, or too much data may be repeated from the Results. In the Discussion, you should generalize, make comparisons and draw conclusions.


Claims and evidence

 The central element in every report is its major claim or its main point. You cannot just make the claim. You need:
– good reasons for the claim;
 – reliable evidence to support it.
Your evidence needs to be substantive, contestable and explicit:
– substantive – having a firm basis in reality, and so important or meaningful
 – contestable – able to be defended during an argument;
 – explicit – clear and detailed, with no room for doubt.

Your claim is supported by evidence, which must be accurate, precise, sufficient and authoritative (reliable because it is true and accurate).



 Often you will not need to write a Conclusions section because you will have already stated your main conclusions in the final section of the Discussion. You should certainly never include a Conclusion just to repeat what you have said in the Discussion. However, if your results and the subsequent discussion have been especially complicated, it may be useful to bring all your findings together.


Here you should acknowledge technical help and advice that you received from others. Bodies or individuals granting money that supported either the research or the authors of the paper should be mentioned. Keep this section short.


It must include following components:
The major components in the listing for a journal article, in order, are:
– author
– date
– title of work cited
 – name of journal
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 The major components for a book are:
– author
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The major components for a chapter in a book or a paper in a proceeding are:
 – author
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– city of publication, publisher. Author and year Generally the author’s surname or main name should be given first, followed by the initial letter(s) of their given name(s). Note the reduced punctuation in the layout of the author’s names in the following examples: Adhikari M ed. 1990. [last name first for all authors, no commas] Adhikari M. 1991. Adhikari N and Neupane P. 1990.  Adhikari M and Adhikari N eds. 1991. Adhikari M, Adhikari N and Neupane P. 1993. [no comma before “and”]. Give the names of all authors; do not use “and others” or et al. in the reference list. You may use — (em dash) for successive references by the same author or authors if the preceding author entry is exactly the same.


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Dragon Fruit: Meaning, Cultivation Techniques & health benefits.

Dragon Fruit: Cultivation Techniques & health benefits.

Author: Tirtha Raj Devkota
MSc .Ag. Horticulture
Agriculture and Forestry University


  • Common name: Dragon fruit
  • Family: Cactaceae
  • Scientific name: Hylocereus Undatus
  • Origin: South America
  • Weight: 150 to 600 grams some reach 1 kilogram

Dragon fruit is very strange looking fruit. The dragon fruit is also known as a pitahaya or pitaya in Mexico. In Central America and northern South America it popular as pitaya Roja. Dragon fruit plant sowing is excellent in the less expected rainfall areas.

Dragon Fruit Uses

  • Jams
  • Ice creams
  • Jelly production
  • Fruit juice
  • Wine
  • Face packs
Climate Required For Dragon Fruit Farming

The tropical weather conditions are better for the dragon fruit cultivation. Dragon fruit pant requires 50 cm annual rainfall and 20 °C to 30 °C temperature. The high sunlight is not convivial for the dragon fruit crop. You can use the shading method for protecting the dragon fruit crop from the high sunlight.

Soil Requirement for Dragon Fruit Farming

In Dragon fruit farming you may mostly requires sandy loam or clay loam. The sandy soil is better for the dragon fruit cultivation. You should plowed soil until it not achieves the better tilth and weed free. You can also require pH of soil in between 5.5 to 7 and it is good for dragon fruit sowing. Before plantation applies any organic compost on the soil in proportional ratio

  • Cutting the 20 cm length of the plant from the mother dragon plants before two days of a plantation. Before cultivation, keep this cutting piece in a pot with the mixture of Dry cow dung, Topsoil, and Sand in the ratio of 1:1:2. Avoid sunlight from these cut piece.
  • When you start cultivation place the every plant 2-meter x 2-meter space between them and planted in a pit which is 60 cm x 60 cm x 60 cm in a size. Also, fill this pit with 100 grams super phosphate compost. The 1-acre land contains about 1700 dragon fruit plants. For plant proper development and growth put the support of concrete or wooden columns.

Planting time:

The fruits should be planted before the onset of monsoon. The fruits have the economic life of 20-25 years.

Plant population: ea

1700-1800 plants per acer or 4200 plants per hectare of land.

Fertilizers of Dragon Fruit Farming

The each plant of dragon fruit requires 10 to 15 kg of organic compost or organic fertilizers for well vegetative grow. In dragon fruit farming for plant better expansion and growth, organic compost or fertilizer can play the main role.

The each plant also requires 40 grams muriate of potash, 90 grams Super phosphate and 70 grams Urea per plant in the vegetative phase.

Apply a high amount of potash and low amount of nitrogen on a plant at fruit bearing phase for obtaining a high yield of dragon fruit.

Take 50 g Urea, 50 g Super phosphate and 100 g muriate of potash and spread this fertilizer on dragon fruit plant from flowering to harvesting stage. Increase the dose of fertilizer from 220 gram per year up to 1.5 kg per plant.

  • Before flower stage in April
  • Fruit developing stage in July to Aug
  • Harvesting of fruit stage In December

Pruning of dragon fruits:

After one month of planting pruning is done to remove the thinner and lateral buds which are growing away from the main stem. Constantly pruning is done to keep the plant healthy.

Irrigation of Dragon Fruit Farming

Drip irrigation method is effective and better irrigation system for dragon fruit plants. The irrigation requires frequently in a different stage of dragon fruit farming like planting, flowering and fruit development stage. Average 1-2 liter water per plant per day is sufficient.


After 8 months the buds will sprouts from the thorns and bloomed within 14 days. Dragon fruits bloom around 6 in the evening and dried up by the morning. Flowering start from June-July and it keep on producing flower to last of the year. The fruit start to develop from the days of fruits set and fruits need to be covered by the plastic to protect from the insects.

Harvesting Of Dragon Fruit Farming

The dragon fruit plant gets the flowering in May to June month and fruits from Aug to Dec month. After one year of planting Dragon fruit plant start bearing the fruits.

After one month of flowering stage, dragon fruits are ready for harvest. The immature dragon fruit has a bright green color skin.  After some day fruit skin turns in red color from dark green. The better harvesting time for dragon fruit is 3 to 4 days after fruit change its skin color. You can use the hand and sickle for picking the dragon fruit from the plant. You can expect average 5 to 6 tonnes dragon fruits per acre.

Dragon Fruit Production and Types


Primary Dragon Fruit Types

There are basically major three type of this Dragon Fruit according to their outer and internal side color.

·         Hylocereus undatus

Pink color fruit with white color flesh and also known as Pitaya blancaor white-fleshed pitahaya.

·         Hylocereus costaricensis

Red color fruit with red color flesh and it is also known as a Pitaya rojaor red-fleshed pitahaya or Hylocereus polyrhizus.

·         Hylocereus megalanthus

Yellow color fruit with white color flesh and it is also known as Pitaya amarillaor yellow pitahaya or Selenicereus megalanthus.

Dragon Fruit Nutrition
  • Phytonutrients
  • Antioxidants
  • vitamin C
  • polyunsaturated fatty acids
  • Carbohydrate
  • Vitamin B
  • Carotene
  • Protein
Various Dragon Fruit Benefits

Dragon fruit is beneficial for healthy skin and hair.

Dragon Fruit Health Benefits

  • Dragon fruit is help in Lowers Cholesterol
  • Helps With Stomach Ailments
  • Lowers Blood Sugar
  • Improves Cardiovascular Health
  • Cuts Low Hemoglobin Risk
  • Helps In Weight Management
  • Prevents Cancer
  • Prevents Congenital Glaucoma
  • Boosts Immunity
  • Helps Suppress Arthritis Pain
  • Dragon Fruit During Pregnancy
  • Prevents Renal Bone Disease
  • Stronger Teeth And Bones
  • Is Good For Dengue Patients
  • Repairs Body Cells
  • Improves Appetite
  • Improves Vision
  • Boosts Brain Function
  • Cures Respiratory Disorders
  • Healthy Snack Option For Kids
    Calculate Fertilizer Required for Dragon Fruit Click here

Conservation Agriculture Meaning, Prospects & Goals. Why conservation Agriculture in Nepal?

Author: Shristi Adhikari
BSc. Ag. 3rd Semester
Agriculture and Forestry University

Agriculture is the mainstay of livelihood in Nepal. Agricultural activities accounts for about one-third of GDP, and provide a livelihood for almost 70% of the population. But its production is barely sufficient to meet domestic consumption needs. 32% of the population still lives in poverty line. Food insecurity persists in many parts of the country.

     Conservation Agriculture is a farming system that can prevent losses of arable land while regenerating degraded lands. According to definition given by FAO, Conservation Agriculture is ”a concept for resource-saving agricultural crop production that strives to achieve acceptable profits together with high and sustained production levels while concurrently conserving the environment.” So, Conservation Agriculture (CA) is a holistic approach characterized by minimal soil disturbance, diversified crop rotation and surface crop residue retention aimed not only at conserving soil and water but also biotic bases of sustainability. Research evidence illustrate that CA gives at least the same yield as conventional tillage (traditional practice), often more with less time and energy inputs and better environment sustainability. Also, it is reported that CA increases in yield of crops by 15 to 25%.

     Repeated tillage, removal or burning of the crop residues and absence of crop rotations are the fundamental causes of unsustainable conventional agricultural system in Nepal. Increasing uncertain in availability of water due to increasing frequency of drought or excess water events resulting in uneven water availability in time and space. Much of the agricultural land in Nepal being marginal such that about half of the agricultural land is located on slopes which results in soil losses from 2.7 to 8.2 tons per hectare. Today’s scenario of labor scarcity, dependence on rainfed ecologies, inappropriate use of fertilizers, increasing production costs and declining productivity are the major’s challenges of agriculture in Nepal. Furthermore, climate change has brought additional challenges to soil and water resources.

       Conservation Agriculture (CA) in several ways, is practically beneficial over Traditional Agriculture. In Traditional Agriculture, the burning of organic matter like weeds or leaves and the ploughing of soil eventually erode the soil and decrease the soil’s quality and production of crops. Whereas, the CA techniques conserves the soil properties by covering it with mulch. The mulch layer also preserves the humidity of soil. Similarly, in traditional practices, there is no proper agricultural system, so called to be follow, they just plant randomly. As a result, there is an impact in plants which grow up squeezed because they are very close to each other & don’t have enough space to grow healthy. Whereas, planting in line in CA makes the weeding and harvesting process easier for the farmers. There is a lot of hard work in Traditional Agriculture, but the result is not as expected. Whereas the soil’s health improves little by little and from the second year, using the CA techniques, the production tends to increase. Furthermore, significant improvements can be made in water conservation, enhancing soil quality and improving soil fertility. CA reduces water runoff, better water infiltration and more water in the soil profile throughout the crop growing period. It has potential to increase water application efficiency by over 50%. While fossil fuels are the main producer of CO2, estimates are that widespread adoption of conservation tillage could offset as much as 16% of world-wide fossils fuel emissions. CA also reduce vulnerability to extreme climatic events. Hence, through CA we can reverse the degradation of soils and move towards more sustainable agriculture.

          Despite the tremendous opportunities of CA in Nepal, no actions have been undertaken in an effective way. It actually has two intellectual barriers to overcome; the first is that CA concept and principles are counterintuitive and contradict the common tillage-based farming experience which has worked for generations and which often has created cultural values and rural traditions. The second is the lack of experimental knowledge about CA and the mechanism to acquire it.

     In Nepal, the extension and adoption of CA technology are in the primary stage and for their expansion, they require concerted efforts of all stakeholders in the partnership and participatory approaches. To promote CA, we need to generate knowledge through on-site research and wide-scale verification in farmer’s field. Similarly, the replication of CA success stories among North and South American countries can be taken into consideration, as the awareness and adoption of CA in these countries is increasing. Gender constraints is another major factor that need to be considered. Farm management decisions are often made by men in Nepal, we need to invite more women to trainings and host more gender specific trainings and be aware of the potential effects of CA adoption on women’s time and labor (since there is a trend towards the feminization of agriculture in Nepal). Accordingly, short, medium- and long-term strategies need to be set up for further research and development. Researcher, extensionists, farmers and private sectors need to build up strong working group to advocate CA along with machines manufactures need to be formed in order to scale up its adoption.

       Conservation Agriculture, thus enhances biodiversity and natural biological processes above and below the ground surface, which contribute to increased water and nutrient efficiency and to improved and sustained crop production. Therefore, promoting and adopting CA management systems in Terai and plain areas can provide sustainable and increased crop production in Nepal.


Need of Today’s Agriculture Slogan; “One Farmer, One Neem plant” In Nepal

Need of Today’s Agriculture Slogan; “One Farmer, One Neem plant” In Nepal.

Author: Nabin Pandey
BSc. Ag. 5th Semester
Agriculture and Forestry University
10th November 2019, 

(Azadirachta indica,) commonly known as neem is a tree in the family meliaceae. It is typically grown in tropical and semi tropical region of Nepal. Plant diseases and insect occurrence are the major factors of crop yield loss in Nepal. Insects and disease loss account more than 35% in crops. According to latest estimate, the annual import of pesticides in Nepal is about 211 t a.i/ha with 29.19% insecticides, 61.38% fungicides, 7.43% herbicides and 2% others. Farmers in Bara, Chitwan, Dhading and Kavre district spray pesticides five to six times a year. 85% of annually imported pesticides are used in vegetable farming.

 According to UN an average of about 200,000 people die from the toxic exposure of pesticides per year across the world. In this havoc situation, it will be a little justice if we talk about neem plant. As we know, neem plant is bitter in taste. But there is profound sweetness for agriculture in the bitterness of this plant. Neem contains a large number of chemically diverse and structurally complex bioactive commonly referred to as limonoids and azadirachtin. Scientists estimate that the chemical compounds from neem can combat more than 300 species of insects, including cabbage loopers, gypsy moth, cockroaches, fleas, aphid and mosquitoes. Indeed, as foreseen by some scientists, this tree may usher in a new era in pest control. Neem acts in various ways against different insects as repellent, feeding inhibitor, egg laying deterrent, growth retardant, sterilizer, and toxin.

The importance of neem as bio- pesticide was realized by the modern scientific community, as early as 1959, when a German scientist in Sudan found that neem was the only tree that remained green during a desert locust plague. Martin Jacobson, a chemist with federal Department of Agriculture, has isolated several substances from neem trees that protect commercial crops from a wide variety of agricultural pest. One of the extracts, called azadirachtin, is so potent that it prevents insects from even touching the plant. Neemix, which was just registered with the Environmental Protection Agency in March for use on vegetables, claims to incapacitate everything from Colorado potato bugs to cabbageworms, without harming beneficial insects. Its active ingredient, azadirachtin, which is derived from the neem seed, appears to control insects and fail metamorphosis of insect larvae by disrupting the activity of ecdysone.

 Neem oil can also suffocate mites, whiteflies, aphids, and other types of soft bodied insects on contact. Multiple modes of action make it unlikely that insects and plant pathogen can develop resistance to neem. Also, certain pest such as floral thrips, diamond back moth and several leaf miners which develop resistance to the inorganic pesticides or that are inherently difficult to control with conventional pesticides are effectively controlled or managed with neem. Furthermore, it is natural product, absolutely non- toxic to other natural predators, 100% biodegradable and eco- friendly. Even some of the most cautions researchers are saying that neem deserves to be called a wonder plant’. Each and every part of neem plant are beneficial in agriculture.

  1. Neem cake: Neem cake has been found to have inhibitory effect on the growth of phytopathogenic fungi causing powdery mildew, wilt, leaf blight, leaf spot, blight and stem rot.
  2. Leaf: Leaves can be used as a cattle feed supplement which possess carminative properties and help in food digestion. They are also useful as mulch and manure. They are particularly useful in alleviating the copper deficiency of most straws and dry fodders.
  3. Fruit: The fruit pulp is useful as a tonic, antiperiodic, purgative, emollient and as anthelmintic.
  4. Seeds: Insects will not feed the grains treated with seeds of neem. The oil extract from the seed of neem helps to reduce the pest not by allowing the female to deposits eggs. This property is known as ovipositional deterrence.
  5. Neem seed Cake:  Neem seed cake is a major byproduct of the neem oil industry. It contains more Sulphur than other cake. The nitrogen content varies from 2 to 3% nitrogen, 0.5% phosphorus and 0.5% potassium. Being totally, botanical product 100% natural NPK content and other essential micro products. The cake is also used as manure. Neem cake has 6.5% digestible crude protein with 19 amino acids. Urea coated neem cake has been found to regulate the rate of nitrification and increase yield of grains and straws.

An angel tree, Neem can be an alien in chemical haunted agriculture of Nepal. The bitterness of this plant can be converted into sweetness which will help in bio friendly and sustainable agriculture. Really, global problems solving tree, neem needs to be accounted on time by government. Nepalese farmers want to get ride from the multitude of pests with a multitude of pesticidal ingredients. The best option will be, neem. Tomato is one of the major vegetable crops of Nepal. It is one of the major sources of income for small farmers. However, it is attacked (Helicoverpa armigera) insect. Neem based products can help in  Helicoverpa management. Likewise, Rice is an important agronomic crop in Nepal. But due to occurrences of pest and several diseases its production is limited. The spray of neem seed kernel extract can control brown plant hopper (BPH), leaf folder, leaf thrips, and silver shoot in rice crop. These are just a sample. Nepalese farmer faced many multifaceted problems in agriculture due to disease and pest. For the effective of IPM and for the solution of pest and disease in agriculture, government should create awareness about the multiuse of neem plant. Government should bring the holistic package that promotes the plantation of neem. To dwindle indiscriminate use of noxious chemical pesticide and to reduce its hurdle, slogan, “one farmer, one neem plant” should be nationally celebrated.

Different Approaches for Management of Brown Spot (Helminthosporium oryzae) Disease in Rice (Oryza sativa) in Nepal.

Different Approaches for Management of Brown Spot (Helminthosporium oryzae) Disease in Rice (Oryza sativa) in Nepal.

Author: Nabin Pandey
BSc. Ag 5th Semester
Agriculture and Forestry University
Rampur Chitwan Nepal


Worldwide, more than 3.5 billion people depend on rice for more than 20% of their daily calories’ intake. Rice is suffering from several fungal diseases among them brown spot caused by Bipolaris oryzae is important. Rice brown spot is a chronic disease that affects millions of hectares of rice. Cochliobolus miyabeanus (formerly known as Helminthosporium oryzae) is a fungus that causes brown spot disease in rice. This disease was the causal agent of the Bengal famine of 1943 that usually occurs on the host leaves and glume, as well as seedlings, sheaths, stems and grains of adult host plants. The severity of this disease is increasing rapidly that cause huge loss in yield. Different approaches can be implemented for management of brown spot in rice. Fungicides, such as iprodione, propiconazole, azoxystrobin, and carbendazim are effective in management of brown spot disease. Poonam variety showed the maximum disease severity of 51.47% and Kabeli show the lowest disease severity of 24.94%. Among the different fungicides, (Propiconazole 25 EC) at the rate of 2 ml/lit water showed significantly lowest AUDPC value. Our study primarily focused on management of brown spot of rice in Nepal through different approaches that are relevant to present situation of farmer.


Rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the most important cereal crops of Nepal (Karki et al., 2018). Rice covers 15, 52,469 ha of total cultivated land, with the production of 52, 30,327 mt and the productivity of 3.37 t/ ha in Nepal (MoAD, 2073/74). The Terai region (60-900 masl) contains 69.73% of the total rice area and contributes 73.24% of total rice production. Hills (900-1500 masl) and mountains (1500-2750 masl) have 25.82% and 4.44% of total rice area producing 23.71% and 3% of rice production (MOAD, 2012) (Moradi et al. 2015) . Brown spot, a devastating disease, caused by Bipolaris oryzae L. is the most important biotic constraint of rice production occurring in almost all the rice growing land in the World. Because of its devastating nature, widespread distribution and existence of several physiological races of the pathogen (Bipolaris oryzae), brown leaf spot disease is the most serious disease of rice (Arshad et al., 2008). It caused Bengal Famine in 1942, with yield loss of 50-90%, which resulted in death of 2 million people due to starvation. The pathogen can infect both seedlings and mature plants with the coleoptile, leaves, leaf sheath, panicle branches, glumes, and spikelets (Webster and Gunnell, 1992). The disease is responsible for reduction in leaf area index (LAI), early senescence of the diseased plants,reduction in number of tillers, reduction in shoot elongation and lowered quality and weight of individual grains (Vidhyasekharan et al., 1973; Klomp, 1977). The disease is also known as poor rice farmer’s disease because it occurs mostly in deficient and poor soils (Agarwal, 1989; Mia, 1998; Zadoks, 2002). Temperature, relative humidity and amount of rainfall during the crop season influence the development (Dhaliwal, 2018).  The management of the brown spot can be done mainly through resistant varieties, chemicals, biological, cultural, etc.


 Breda de Haan in 1900 first described the fungus as Helminthosposium oryzae which was transferred to Drechslera oryzae by Subramanian and Jain (1966). Shoemaker (1959) referred it to Bipolaris oryzae as most of the conidia germinate from two end cells. The fungus produces inter and intra-cellular mycelium, which develops as greyish brown to dark brown mat on the infected tissues.
Favorable Condition for Pathogen:
Relative humidity (greater than 90%)
 High dose of Nitrogen
Optimum temperature, for infection range from 22 to 30°c and relative humidity of over 92% (Percich et al., 1997).
 Leaf must be wet for 8-24 hours.
Source of inoculum: Seed, collateral hosts, rice straw or stubble
Damage Symptoms:

The pathogen attacks the crop from seedling to milk stage. The symptoms appear as minute spots on the coleoptile, leaf blade, leaf sheath and glume, being most prominent on leaf blades and glumes. On leaves, typical spots are brown in colour with grey or whitish centre, cylindrical or oval in shape resembling sesame seeds usually with yellow halo while young spots are small, circular and may appear as dark brown or purplish brown dots.  The fungus also produces brown or grayish brown spots on the neck region as compared to blackening in case of neck blast (Sunder et al ., 2005)

                            Figure 1. Scale for the scoring of brown leaf spot of Rice ( IRRI, 2009)

 Different Methods of Management of Brown Spot in Rice:

1. Biological Method:

 Biological method of management is emerging as an alternative to the noxious chemical pesticide which has attained importance in modern agriculture to curtail the hazard of intensive use of toxic chemicals. Commercially available antagonistic Pseudomonas and Trichoderma species can suppress diseases by direct effect on the pathogen through mycoparasitism, antibiosis, and competition for iron/nutrients or by improving plant immunity through induced resistance (Singh et al., 2005). Isolates of fluorescent Pseudomonas from soil reduced the fungal growth and brown spot incidence (Ray et al., 1990). The bio-control agents viz., Trichoderma harzianum, T. viride, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens are rapidly used for control of brown spot. Seed treatments with Trichoderma viride or T.harzianum have reduced disease by 70 % (Biswas et al., 2010). Over 70 % disease reduction has been achieved too from the use of selected Pseudomonas spp. isolates (Joshi et al., 2007; Ludwigetal, 2009). T. harzianum has also been reported to reduce the disease intensity and significantly improve grain yield, total grain carbohydrate and protein, in addition to a significant improvement in the total photosynthetic pigments in rice leaves (Abdel-Fattah et al., 2007).

2. Cultural method

2.1 Use of resistant variety:

 Poonam variety  showed the maximum disease severity of 51.47% and kabeli had the lowest disease severity of 24.94% (Shrestha et al. 2017). The screening of fourteen rice varieties against brown leaf spot disease revealed that none of the varieties was immune. Among them, only HJ-G1 and HJ-G2 were found moderately resistant. Highest grain yield (5.10 t/ha) was found in HJ-G1 with least disease severity of 21.73%. Also, HJ-G1 had the lowest AUDPC values in all observation dates, with a total AUDPC value of 614.8. So, it is recommended to use HJ-G1 variety because it has highest yield in comparison to other varieties as well as tolerant to disease.(Paper 2008)(Adhikari 2013)(Scholar et al. 2015)













2.2 Use of cow urine:
 Use of Cow urine as a bio-fungicide instead of fungicide is an alternative was to manage brown spot disease which is cost effective, can reduce environmental pollution and enhance the safety of agricultural produce and maintain agricultural sustainability. Nautiyal and coworkers reported controlling of plant pathogenic fungi like Colletotrichum capsici, Sclerotium rolfsii, Alternaria alternata, Penicillium species, Rhizoctonia solani, Phytophthora palmivora, Helminthosporium using cow dung and urine. The varying fertility levels were unable to show the suppression of the brown spot disease whereas the varying concentrations of cow urine spray showed positive impact on that disease suppression. The 100% cow urine spray was able to minimize the brown spot score but the control treatment exhibited maximum disease score (Sadhukhan and Bohra 2018).

2.3 Use of LCC method of nitrogen management :

The disease is known to occur in resource poor farmers’ fields where there is deficiency of water supply and nitrogenous fertilizers (Zadoks, 1974). Leaf colour chart (LCC) is known as one of the important innovation in the agricultural sector of the world. It was the first time prepared by scientists of Japan. They used this for estimation of chlorophyll formation rate in the rice (Oryza sativa L.) crop and then more various investigations on leaf colour chart were done which showed that it is important for better nitrogen management. N deficiency can easily be rectified with no devastation of plant parts.

3. Chemical method

 The application of the fungicides is the most effective management option for the control of brown spot of rice . The use of fungicides, such as iprodione, propiconazole, azoxystrobin, trifloxystrobin, and carbendazim are effective in disease management. Three different chemical fungicides; SAAF® (Carbendazim 12% + Mancozeb 63%), Tilt® (Propiconazole 25 EC) & Bavistin® (Carbendazim 50% W.P.) at three different doses of 1.5, 2 & 2.5 g (or ml) and a control plot. Among the different fungicides, Tilt® at the rate of 2 ml/lit water showed significantly lowest AUDPC value (373.7) followed by SAAF® at 2 gm/lit (374.9) while the highest value was shown by Bavistin® at 2gm/lit (590.1).Similarly, highest economic yield was obtained in SAAF® at 2gm/lit (5.220 t/h) followed by Tilt® at 2ml/lit water (5.210t/ha) and the lowest in Bavistin® at 1.5gm/lit (3.320t/ha). So, among different chemical fungicides, SAAF® at 2gm/lit being efficient, economical and easily accessible, farmers could be suggested for reducing the disease severity and subsequent increase in the yield of rice.(Shrestha et al. 2017). The efficacy evaluation of different chemical fungicides available in the market against brown leaf spot disease of rice showed that application of propiconazole for management of brown spot in field was most effective in both reducing the diseases severity and economic yield than other tested fungicides. So, propiconazole was recommended for the farmers(Poudel, Bharatee, and Acharya 2019).

4. Physical method:

4.1 Red-Light-Induced Resistance to Brown Spot:

When the leaves were kept under natural light or in the dark. The protective effect was also observed in intact rice plants inoculated with B. oryzae; the plants survived under red light, but most of them were killed by infection under natural light or dark condition. Red light did not affect fungal infection in onion epidermis cells or heat-shocked leaves of rice, and it did not affect cellulose digestion ability; this suggested that the protective effect is due to red-light-induced resistance. In addition, the degree of protection increased as the red light dosage increased, regardless of the order of the red light and natural light period, indicating that red-lightinduced resistance is time dependent.the results suggest that the tryptophan and phenylpropanoid pathways are involved in the red-light-induced resistance of rice to B. oryzae (Roxana et al., 2014).


Rice is the 1st staple food grain crop of Nepal and has a significant role in food security of the Nepalese people. The disease has been reported to occur in all the rice growing countries including Japan, China, Burma, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Iran, Africa, South America, Russia, India, North America, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Australia, Malaya and Thailand (Gangopadhyay, 1983; Ou, 1985; Khalili et al., 2012). Foliar application of T. harzianum has been shown to reduce the disease intensity and significantly improve grain yield, total grain carbohydrates and proteins in addition to a significant improvement in the total photosynthetic pigment in the rice leaves. Cow urine as a bio fungicide and growth regulator is a gold to the poor farming communities and it is a key from waste to wealth innovation. Application of propiconazole for management of brown spot in field was most effective in both reducing the diseases severity and economic yield so, propiconazole was recommended for the farmers. Highest grain yield (5.10 t/ha) was found in HJ-G1 with least disease severity of 21.73% so HJ-G1 is recommended for Chitwan farmer.


[1] Adhikari, Raj K. 2013. “Economics Of Organic Rice Production.” Journal of Agriculture and Environment 12: 97–103.

[2] Gupta, Vishal et al. 2018. “Management of Brown Spot of Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) Caused by Bipolaris Oryzae by Bio-Control Agents.”

[3] International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 7(04): 3472–77.

[4] Moradi, K- et al. 2015. “Brown Spot Resistance in Rice : A Review.” 1(5): 175–79.


[6] Poudel, Nabin Sharma, Prakash Bharatee, and Milan Acharya. 2019. “Influence of Different Chemical Fungicides against Rice Brown Leaf Spot Disease Caused by Bipolaris Oryzae.” 8(01): 441–46.

[7] Sadhukhan, Rahul, and Jitendra Singh Bohra. 2018. “Management of Brown Spot Disease in Rice ( Helminthosporium Oryzae ) by Spraying of Cow Urine.” (April).

[8] Scholar, Google, Global Impact Factor, Index Copernicus, and Open Access. 2015. “Available Online At :” 3: 56–60.

[9] Shrestha, Sunil et al. 2017. “Field Experiment to Evaluate the Efficacy of Different Doses of Chemical Fungicides against Rice Brown Leaf Spot Disease Caused by Bipolaris Oryzae L .” 5(3): 162–68.

[10] Ray, S., Ghosh, M. and Mukharjee, N. (1990). Fluorescent pseudomonads for plant disease control. J. Mycopathol. Res. 28: 135-140.

[11] Singh, R.K., Singh, C.V. and Shukla, V.D. (2005). Phosphorus nutrition reduces brown spot incidence in rainfed upland rice. Intern. Rice Res. Notes 30: 31-32.

@AgriTechNepal 2019

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