Common name:rose,derived from Greek word rhedon which means excellent fragrance
Scientific name:Rosa chinensis
Also known as queen of flowers.
Rose is the best known and most popular of all the garden flowers throughout the world.It is famous for its shape,color and fragrance.So it is widely used for decorative purpose.
Rose is commercially used as cut flower.
Roses have very strong and delicious scent.So roses are widely used in perfume industries.
Medicinal and cosmetics
Roses have great medicinal values as ear ache,pimple,ringworm and stomach ache can be cured by rose juice.Roses have anti-inflammatory,antibacterial and astrigent value.Rose extracts are rich in vitamin C and vitamin E.So they are also used in cosmetics.
Rose plant requires sandy loam soil rich in organic matter with pH value of 5.5 to 6.5.Rose plants are sensitive to water logging so are planted in raised beds with proper drainage.Slyvox 0.5ml per liter is found excellent for soil treatment.
Humid and moderate temperature ranging from 15-28 C is considered ideal for rose cultivation in tropical and sub tropical climatic condition.Higher temperature causes increase in number of flowers;however it reduces quality of flower.Similarly lower temperature produces blind shoots and also induces attacks of diseases.
Rose requires bright sunny condition for minimum 6 hours.Color of rose is also influenced by intensity of light.High light intensity is required for the development of anthocyanin pigment in petals.
Humidity is of great importance for production of quality rose flowers.In summer condition 50-60% humidity is required.Very high RH at lower temperature increases the chance of occurrence of diseases.
Winter months are the best and safest for plantation as the plants are in dormant stage in this time and easy to handle.In areas with severe winter,planting may be done either in autumn or in spring.
This affects the quality of blooms per unit area.Planting distance differ with place and type of roses;
For Dwarf polyanthus:45 cm
For Miniatures:30 cm
For Climbing roses:3 m
For HT and Floribundas:55 cm
In summer season rose plants should be irrigated twice a week and once a week during winter.After manuring each time watering is necessary.The plant should not be irrigated before and after pruning.
Manures and fertilizers
Roses generally need fertilizing during spring after the leaves grow,then after each blooming flush and after pruning activity.The rose plant should not be fed for about six weeks before frost;otherwise plant produces new growth that suffer from winter damage.For rose plants in open field, 6-8 kg well rotten manure and 60gm per plant NPK in the ratio 120:60:40 should be used.
Rose plant is pruned during the dormant stage when its activity is least.The most usual time of pruning is during October-November in warmer plains after the rains are well over and thee cold season is approaching.Three types of pruning are practiced in roses;
Light pruning:each bush will have 6-8 canes and each cane will have 6-8 buds.
Moderate pruning:each bush will have 4-6 canes and each cane will have 4-6 buds.
Heavy pruning:each bush will have 2-4 cane and each cane will have 2-4 buds.
Rose can be propagated by seeds as well as by various vegetative methods like cutting,layering ,budding and grafting.HT and Floribundas are propagated by grafting and budding while climbers,ramblers,polyantha and miniature roses can be propagated by cutting.
Rose is harvested at tight bud stage when calyx is at downward position and the bud shows full color but not yet started unfolding.The flowers should be harvested in the early morning or in the late afternoon to avoid thee damage of bud by high temperature.Red and pink cultivars can be harvested when first two petals of flowers start to unfold and calyx is reflexed below the horizontal line.However,the yellow type should be harvested slightly earlier and white rose types slightly later than red and pink.
Post harvest practices
Stem is dipped in water immediately after cutting.
Stored in cool temperature of 4.4-7.2 C for about 6-12 hours as higher temperature facilitates problems like bent neck and microbial infection .
To increase vase life of cut roses 5% sucrose along with 200 ppm 8-hydroxyquionoline sulphate and 500 ppm silver nitrate is used.