Author: Agnidhar Adhikari
Machhapuchchhre -4, lahachok Kaski
Farm animals like cattle and buffaloes are prone to disease attack as like human beings. Like corona virus in human beings, there are fatal disease attacking farm animals and are really difficult in managing or controlling them. Foot and mouth disease and mastitis are very serious disease incidence in farm animals which cause economic loss in both production and growth of animals. Let’s learn the major diseases occurring to farm animals of Nepal and their management.
Bhyagute Rog (Haemorrhagic septicaemia, HS):
- This disease is caused by Pasturella multocida a non-spore forming gram negative bacteria in Cattle, buffalo, Yak, Chauri & Camel. It also infects pig, horse and human too. The management methods of this disease are as below:
- If it is identified in initial stage, consult with veterinarian doctor and give Sulfadimidin injection @ 30 ml/50 kg weight of animal half in the veins and half below the skin in the first day. Repeat the process in the second and third day with dose @ 15 ml half in the veins and half below the skin simultaneously.
- If it already passes 8-10 hours of infection, treatment may not save the animal. Tetracycline vaccine @ 10-30 ml according to weight either once or twice a day dividing the dose in muscle region for 5-7 days will cure the disease. After its application, energy giving medicine should be given to the animals.
- Proper care to bio security and cleaning of shed of domesticated farm animal is very essential
- If disease happen to occur, isolate the sick animal and start treating until recovery. According to vaccine nature or before monsoon starts administer vaccine to healthy animals at 6/6 months interval.
- Since the pathogen are abundantly available in healthy animals too, hand wounded person should never put their hands in animal`s mouth or if accidently put, immediately wash the hand and sterilize with Dettol or potash water.
- Protect animals from extreme cold and hot climate and unfavorable weather to prevent disease attack.
Charchare (BQ Black Quarter):
- It is caused by bacterial pathogen Clostridium chauvoei. Tissue are swollen if this epidemic disease attack farm animals. It is treated and prevented by the following ways:
- Consult the veterinarian doctor and administer Penicillium injection @ 15000 unit / kg of animal body weight at 12 hours interval for 4-5 days by intramuscular method.
- To prevent the epidemic form of this disease, shed or farm house should be cleaned and bio security must be applied.
- If disease happen to occur, isolate the sick animal and start treating until recovery. Vaccine should be given before onset of monsoon at 6/6 months interval or yearly interval.
- Provide feed to the healthy animals first and then only take care of sick animals to avoid contamination and sterilize your hands every time.
Patake rog (Anthrax):
- This disease is caused by spore forming gram positive bacterial pathogen Bacillus anthracis.
- This disease is fatal to cattle, buffalo, goat, pig, horse, and human as well. It causes wounds in skin and difficulty in breathing to animals.
- Consult the veterinarian doctor and administer Penicillin vaccine @ 60 lakhs unit once a day for 5-7 days by intramuscular method. If available give anti-anthrax serum @ 100-250 ml per day for 5 days.
- This disease is very severe in nature. So, dead animals infected by this disease must be either burned or buried under without operating the body.
- If available give anthrax spore vaccine @ 0.5-1 ml according to body weight to farm animals.
Khoret rog (Foot and mouth disease):
- It is also called as FMD which can cause in all regions of Nepal all round the year. Sick animals produce excessive saliva.
- If sick animals are identified immediately isolate them and do not feed the calves if mother cattle or buffalo is infected with this disease to prevent the transmission.
- Vaccine of specific strain of virus should be administered consulting with veterinarian doctor not only to sick animals but also to healthy animals of the farm and surrounding areas too. Type O vaccine will also provide immunity for 4-6 months whereas Type A and Asia 1 provide immunity for 18-22 months against this disease. So, vaccine should be provided to farm animals at 6/6 months interval in rotation.
Gaugoti Rog (Cattle Plague):
- This disease was eradicated from Nepal in 2002 A.D. and is very severe and fatal exotic epidemic disease. If this occur infect the animals, whole farm animals can be dead at once which has higher chance to occur in Cattle, buffalo, Yak and Chauri than other animals.
- Symptoms of this disease are similar to PPR disease of goat and sheep however, wounds in the mouth or oral cavity are distinguishing symptoms of it.
- If symptoms are identified in the farm animals, they should be immediately isolated in the sick animal shed.
- Immediately contact the Veterinarian doctor and administer the vaccine.
Thunelo rog (Mastitis):
- This is most commonly occurring and causing heavy economic loss to farm animals in Nepal. If this disease occur, swollen udder and tits are visible if it is clinical mastitis but may not be visible if it is sub clinical mastitis.
- It is caused by bacterial pathogens Staphylococcus, streptococcus, Corynebacterium, E coli, Pseudomonas, Mycoplasma etc.
- Clean the udder with lukewarm water and remove blood, milk and dead WBC collection by milking from tits. Insert Mastalon or Vetimast, or Tylox medicine inside tits to udder for 3 days and remove then by milking.
- If fever is persistent in animal, provide antibiotics syringe for 3-5 days through intramuscular. The best treatment for this disease is Jentamycin injection @ 5ml in distilled water inserted in udder through tits for 5 days is very helpful.
- Care to bio security.
- Shed cleaning, disinfecting and apply antibiotics to udder after new calf is given birth.
- Try to milk fast with clean hands completely at all.
- Clean the tits and udder with clean water after suckling by calves.
- Avoid any type of injury to udder and tits.
- Milk healthy animals first and followed by sick animals.
Pet Fulne rog (Tympany Bloat):
- Excessive consumption of grain legumes or legume fodder/forage or internal parasite will lead to this disease. This disease is high in grazing animals especially in summer season. It is likely to occur in ruminant animals by excessive production of gas. It is mainly two types:
- Mild Bloat: Only gas accumulation
- Severe Bloat: Gas along with froth (froathy bloat)
- Symptoms include swelling of either one side or both sides of rumen or simply stomach.
Prevention & Cure:
- Consult veterinarian doctor and administer Timpol, Affron, or Timpanimal @ 80 grams for large sized animals and @ 20 grams for calves and sheep/goat in lukewarm water twice a day.
- Similarly, Blatal, or Aafanil, or Blotosil, or Blotonil @ 100 ml at first and 50 ml at second for large animals and @ 15 ml for goat and small animals is given twice a day to cure all types of bloat disease.
- Place the solution of penicillin, Neomycin mixing in distilled water in rumen of animal directly to kill gas forming pathogen.
- Legume fodder and grain legumes should be fed in recommended amount only.