Corona Virus Vaccine Update: Top 5 Countries close to Vaccine success & Phases of Vaccine Trial

Corona Virus Vaccine Update

Introduction:

COVID-19 pandemic has emerged as threatening biological weapon for human civilization globally at present. It was first appeared in a 55 years old person in Wuhan city of Hubei province of China. It has already been 10 months after the first case of novel corona virus. Most countries globally adapt lockdown ceasing all the daily life activities around cities and country sides. Though both lockdown and shutdown has been practiced by most countries of world, the corona virus is hardly controlled from spreading.

By the 17th of August 2020, the cases of Corona virus infected patient globally have reached 21.8 million whereas the death toll has reached 779,993. Fear has overtaken optimistic thought of people and though different countries are working for discovery of corona virus vaccine, still they haven`t been succeed. Scientists and researchers from all round the world are working day and night to make impossible possible and control corona virus globally.

Vaccine Urgency:

With respect to the present scenario, the best solution to this deadly virus is only the use of effective vaccine administrating to 60-70% people to practice herd immunity.

As this virus spreads rapidly, too many people globally are vulnerable to get infected with this virus so that it helps people to fight against the virus once they have developed immunity. This will ultimately help in loosening or lifting lockdowns so as to resume the people`s normal life.

Phases of Vaccine Testing:

Preclinical testing:

During this phase or stage, scientists give the vaccine to animals like rodents (mice), monkeys to see if it produces an immune system. Make sure animal is mammal.

Phase 1: Safety Trials:

At this phase, scientists give the vaccine to very small number of people in order to test safety and dosage along with to confirm as it stimulates immune system or not.

Phase 2: Expanded Trails:

During this phase, scientists now give the vaccine to hundreds of people split into groups like children, elderly to observe if the vaccine acts differently in them. It also tests the vaccine`s safety and its ability to stimulate immune system.

Phase 3: Efficacy trails:

Now, the scientists give the same vaccine to thousands of people around the world and of different age groups or stages and wait to see how many become infected. These trials determine if the vaccine protect individual against coronavirus. Actually, the vaccine has to protect at least 50% of vaccinated people to consider it as effective. Similarly, phase 3 trials are large enough to reveal evidence of relatively rare effects that might be missed in previous studies.

Since, Russia has claimed their vaccine to be world`s first without undergoing third phase of testing. It means side effects have not been identified after administrating that vaccine. Now, how can we be sure it is safe?

Approved:

At this phase, regulators in each country review the trial results and finally decide whether to approve the vaccine or not. Once a vaccine is licensed, researchers continue to monitor people who have received the vaccine to make sure it is safe and effective.

Countries near to vaccine success:

  1. China:

China is the origin of novel corona virus and spread of this deadly virus globally making each citizen residing at the corners of world vulnerable to get infected with it. They have already approved their own local company, pharmaceutical firm CanSino Biologics to carry out their third phase testing of vaccine.

According to the statement published in People`s daily, they granted patent at 11th August around the Russian vaccine registration viz. Sputnik V. CanSino vaccine is already one step close to being approved for use.

  1. Russia:

Though they have not tested third phase of testing, at 11th August 2020, Russian president reveal that Russia is first of all country in world to successfully discover corona virus vaccine. They have claimed that the vaccine, Sputnik V is 100% safe to use in public scale.

This vaccine was developed by Gamaleya research institute for Epidemiology and microbiology in Moscow along with the coordination of Russian defense ministry.

  1. United States:

United states do not imply lockdown all over their country throughout the pandemic outbreak. But US pharmaceutical major Pfizer and its German partner BioNTech SE have already begun delivering doses of their vaccine to candidates for initial testing in USA on 5th May.

It is believed that they are also at last phase of trial of vaccine and ready to produce in large scale to make available to citizens.

  1. United Kingdom:

The government of UK had pledged euro 388 million to fund vaccine research, test and treatment. Scientist at Jenner Institute of Oxford University had started to make potential vaccine for corona virus. The vaccine is being developed with multiple partners including the Serum Institute of India.

The Oxford University has been assigned to produce 4 crores doses of vaccine by the end of September to all the citizens of Europe.

  1. Italy:

After the United Kingdom, the Italian researchers claimed that they have successfully produced potential vaccine which contain COVID-19 spreads in humans. The first phase of testing was able to neutralize the virus in human cells which was developed by Luigi Aurisicchio.

It was achieved by the end of May. Now, they have advanced to other testing phases.

Others:

The other countries trying to produce the vaccine against corona virus include following:

Israel

India

Australia

Germany

Lets hope the world become the better & safe place for people to live again.

References:

theindiantimesnews

bbcnews

 

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