Bio Security in Poultry Farm: Approach for disease management and smart poultry farming

Bio-Security in Poultry Farming

Introduction:

Bio security refers to protecting farm animals or domesticated animal from hazardous things. During commercial farming of poultry birds, preventing contact of bacteria and viruses to poultry birds is referred to as bio security. If such bio security measures are not adopted in poultry farms, they are easily attacked by diseases. Also, measures are taken to prevent spreading of diseases prevalent in one farm to other existing farms nearby. Nowadays, disease appeared in one farm are easily spread to nearby farms.

Though bio security seems costly during initial phase in poultry farms to farmers they self-realize its importance and how it has saved epidemic attack of diseases in their farm because poultry inside farm are weak to defend disease by their own. Pathogen once entered in very small amount inside farm, they are capable of multiplying and attacking poultry there. That`s why poultry farmers must be well aware about how pathogen will get inside their farm and adopt the management methods.

How Diseases Introduce?

  1. Unnecessary people should be allowed to enter inside farm. Neighbors, relatives and poultry farmers: none should be allowed to enter inside. Avoid entering and getting out from farm without absolute need. At most extent, make availability of single person for feeding, watering and other management inside farm. Visiting to cities and other farms and going inside directly own`s farm will probably increase incidence of disease attack.
  2. Materials / equipment which are frequently used inside and outside the farm should be separate for both areas like bucket, cleaner or any other. Never make use of same material both inside and outside the farm.
  3. Chickens which died inside farm should never be given to dogs, thrown randomly, fed to pig or thrown away in rivers. They may eventually spread out diseases.
  4. Incoming of any type of birds may carry out disease inside it.
  5. If there is no fence around the farm, disease pathogen may spread through wild animals, or domestic stray animals.
  6. Materials which come in contact with diseased farm like feed`s sack, vehicles etc. may eventually end up spreading disease from one to another farm.

Bio security Measures:

  1. As much as possible, poultry farm should be far away from residential area, making it lonely in that area but not such far making management aspect difficult. Distance between one to another farm at minimum is 200 m as disease attacking in one farm may spread to another if they are near.
  2. Apply fencing wire or compound around the farm. If ventilation is blocked by compound, wire fence can be practiced. Fence must be able to keep away cow, buffalo, cat, dogs, jackal, Nyaurimuso & Malsappro etc.
  3. Keep net in the ventilated areas or doors or windows to prevent birds from coming inside which can also transfer pathogens.
  4. Make cemented pit near the door of farm and keep phenol or other sanitizer to sanitize the legs before entering the farm dipping in there.
  5. After coming from visit to cities or other`s farm, never enter directly into your farm as pathogen may have travelled along with you in fabrics. So, change clothes every time and maintain same dress for going inside the farm washing hands and legs and sanitizing them properly.
  6. After visiting to neighbor`s farm, please change dress and take a shower and change dress again before entering your farm.
  7. Try to raise chicken / poultry of same age at the same time since different age group may invite different pathogens casing serious attack to one another. Also, in ALL IN ALL OUT method, farm cleaning and drying is easier and can be done after each time they are marketed.
  8. Dead chickens should be buried under ground little away from farm and deep enough that dogs and jackal would not dig up to take them away and spread pathogens.
  9. Spraying of sanitizer or phenolic compounds inside or outside the farm is essential from time to time. At present in the market, Virconayas, Kharsoline TH-4, Qualitrol, Omnicide etc. are available.
  • Gamboots, Apron, torch lights which are used inside farm must be separate for the farms. Equipment being used inside the farm must not be used in any places.
  1. Try to maintain same person for feeding, watering, cleaning, drying and other farm operation so as to minimize the hazard of biological pathogens.

Conclusion:

We have a very popular saying “Prevention is better than cure” which is wise decision. If we adopt the proper bio security measures, we can protect chickens from diseases and parasite attacking them. Disease inviting is by ourselves which means we are carrying agents of pathogens and if we apply bio security in appropriate ways, we can avoid such pathogens from getting inside farm and causing disease to chickens/ poultry. Feed`s sack, vehicle carrying them and people getting involved in such actions are responsible for disease transmission so, veterinarian, farm owner and feed supplier all should be equally careful to prevent disease pathogens. So, a single person cannot maintain bio security and thus it is defined as integrated approach of avoiding natural hazards of bacteria and virus attacking to poultry chickens by all farm owners, suppliers, workers and veterinarian doctors.

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