17 known Diseases & their Integrated Management in Tomato

Introduction:

Tomato crops are very prone to diseases at seedlings stage, during harvesting stage and after picking of fruit and transport stage. Among the total diseases occurring in tomato, diseases according to causative organisms are as disease caused by fungus, by bacterial, by nematode and by virus. They are briefly described in the paragraph below:

  1. Fungal diseases:

Powdery mildew:

It is caused by fungal pathogen named Odium neolycopersici. The management methods of this disease are as below:

  1. Wider spacing of the seedlings during transplanting is necessary which allows the free air flow.
  2. Spray of JHOLMOL every week helps in controlling this disease to major extent.

Alternaria/Early Blight:

It is caused by fungal pathogen named Alternaria solani. The management methods of this disease are as below:

  1. This disease is high when humidity is higher along with hot climate so, planting of seedlings at wider spacing and applying low irrigation in the nursery and main field.
  2. Plant the crop at yearly gap in the same field.
  3. Destroy the crop debris of tomato after harvesting of fruit and burning with fire.
  4. Do not irrigate the areas with sprinkler method in those areas, maintaining nursery and crops under the UV plastic tunnel.
  5. Before sowing the seeds dip them in water at 50 degree Celsius for 30 minutes and spray Blitox-50 or Zineb @ 0.2% or Captan @ 0.2% or Bordeaux mixture (5: 5: 50) at 1-2 weeks intervals after transplanting of seedlings 1 month. Since, pesticides have negative effect in human health, ty not to spray at most condition.

Fusarium wilt:

It is caused by fungal pathogen named Fusarium oxysporium f sp lycopersici. The management methods of this disease are as below:

  1. To prevent this disease, avoid water stagnation, sowing of disease-free seeds.
  2. Do not plant tomato in the infected areas for at least 4 years.
  3. Destroy the disease infected plants or uproot the crops after harvesting and destroy the debris properly.
  4. Plow the field, irrigate the field and cover the field with 30 microns transparent plastic for 6 weeks.
  5. Bio pesticide like Sanjeevani is used for seed treatment, seed bed and seedlings treatment, and after transplanting apply sanjeevani 5 grams + 5 grams sugar @ 50-60 grams around each plant for 2 times at 15 days interval.
  6. Apply Pseudomonas @ 5 gram/liter water after 15 days of seedlings transplant and at 25th day of transplanting which reduces this crop.
  7. Nova, Eureka, Sirish, Sense are this disease tolerant variety, which can be used for cultivation.

Verticillium wilt:

It is caused by fungal pathogen named Verticillium albo-atrum and Verticillium albo-atrum. The management methods of this disease are as below:

  1. Use disease free seeds and avoid water stagnation to control this disease.
  2. Crop rotation with maize, cowpea like crops avoiding continuous tomato cultivation at same field.
  3. Remove and burn the disease infected plants.

Late blight:

It is caused by fungal pathogen named Phytopthora infestans. The management methods of this disease are as below:

  1. Do not plant tomato in the infected areas for at least 4 years cropping with non-solanaceous crops.
  2. Destroy the disease infected plants or uproot the crops after harvesting and destroy the debris properly.
  3. Do not carry out inter culture operation when leaves are wet.
  4. From the initiation of disease, apply Copper oxychloride (Blitox 50% WP) @ 1.5 gram per liter water and Mancozeb (Dithane M 45, 75% WP) @ 1.5 gram/liter water with total of 3 gram/liter wate at 7-10 days interval for 3-4 times.

Septoria Leaf spot:

It is caused by fungal pathogen named Septoria lycopersici. The management methods of this disease are as below:

  1. Wider planting of seedlings and use of disease-free seeds for sowing.
  2. Apply irrigation in the morning at the base of plant which reduce the disease infestation.
  3. Destroy the disease infected leaves properly.
  4. Adopt crop rotation and plant tomato in the same piece of land only after 3-4 years.
  5. Avoid working when there is raining or in the morning hours.

Grey mold:

It is caused by fungal pathogen named Botrytis cinerea. The management methods of this disease are as below:

  1. Increase air circulation in the field, apply the pesticide at interval immediately after appearance of disease.

Anthracnose:

It is caused by fungal pathogen named Colletotrichum coccodes. The management methods of this disease are as below:

  1. Wider planting of seedlings and use of disease-free seeds for sowing.
  2. Apply irrigation in the morning at the base of plant which reduce the disease infestation.
  3. Spray of Trichoderma viridis and Bacillius subtills.

Buckeye rot:

It is caused by fungal pathogen named Rhizoctonia solani. The management methods of this disease are as below:

  1. Remove the leaves and fruits touching the ground.
  2. Disease tolerant varieties like Hybrid N-64, hybrid 10 should be cropped.
  3. Bordeaux mixture, Mancozeb, Ridomil MZ @ 0.25 %, Indofil M 45 @ 0.25 % should be sprayed.

Leaf mold:

It is caused by fungal pathogen named Fulvia fulva. The management methods of this disease are as below:

  1. Decrease the humidity under the greenhouse and plastic house with proper ventilation and air circulation.
  2. Planting of disease tolerant varieties.

Bacterial Diseases:

Bacterial spot:

It is caused by bacterial pathogen named Xanthomonas campestris pv. vescatoria. The management methods of this disease are as below:

  1. To prevent this disease, use disease free seedlings/seeds and training and pruning should be carried out according to need only.
  2. This bacteria lives in seed, soil and crop debris so, disease infected crop debris should be burned.
  3. Crop rotation excluding chilly and bell pepper.
  4. Better drainage facility and no inter-cultural operation during raining and morning hours.
  5. Seed treatment with sodium chloride @ 0.4% or Mercuric chloride @ 0.1% for 4 minutes.
  6. Spray copper fungicides like Maneb or Mancozeb at weekly interval.

Bacterial speck:

It is caused by bacterial pathogen named Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. The management methods of this disease are as below:

  1. This bacteria lives in seed, soil and crop debris so, disease infected crop debris should be burned.
  2. Crop rotation excluding chilly and bell pepper.
  3. Better drainage facility and no inter-cultural operation during raining and morning hours.
  4. Seed treatment with hot water at 52 degree Celsius for 30 minutes.

Bacterial canker of tomato:

It is caused by bacterial pathogen named Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. The management methods of this disease are as below:

  1. This bacteria lives in seed, soil and crop debris so, disease infected crop debris should be burned.
  2. Crop rotation excluding chilly and bell pepper.
  3. Better drainage facility and no inter-cultural operation during raining and morning hours.
  4. Seed treatment with hot water at 52 degree Celsius for 30 minutes.

Viral diseases:

  1. Tomato mosaic virus: Spread by aphids and caused by TMV
  2. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus: Spread by whitefly and caused by TYLCV
  3. Tomato spotted wilt virus: spread by insects and caused by TSWV

They can be managed in the following ways:

  1. Control of vector in each case is essential. Spray the crop with Rogor (Dimethoate 30 EC) @ 1 ml/liter water at 15 days interval.
  2. Spraying of 10 ml liter milk/liter water at nursery bed and after transplanting in the field helps in controlling these diseases.
  3. Spray Bioleaf care @ 1 ml/liter water in nursery bed for 1 time and after 15 days of transplanting of seedlings in the main field for 3-4 times at 20 days interval help in controlling these diseases.
  4. Nova, Sense, Sirish and Anath are disease tolerant varieties which should be planted in disease prone areas.
  5. Adopt crop rotation.
  6. Seed treatment with hot water at 52 degree Celsius for 30 minutes.

Disease due to Nematode

Root Knot nematode:

It is caused by Meloidogyne spp nematode/ The control measures for this disease are given below:

  1. Do not plant seedlings with swollen roots or root with knot in them.
  2. Crop rotation with Maize, and other cereals excluding solanaceous crops for 3-4 years in the disease affected areas.
  3. Disease tolerant varieties like Sirish, Sense, Eureka, NS 709, NS 6141 etc should be planted.
  4. Use mulch of marigold grown in same field before planting tomato in that field harvested during peak flowering period.
  5. Sow black rape seed in the disease infected areas and use as green manure at pod formation stage and then only transplant the tomato seedlings.
  6. Apply neem cake @ 25 kg / ropani before planting.
  7. Verticillium @ 10 ml/liter water is applied at the base of seedlings @ 40/40 ml per plant after 7-8 days of transplanting. Also dip the roots of seedlings for 30 minutes before transplanting.
  8. Apply furadon @ 1-2 gram/pit before tomato planting.
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