Chinese cabbage belongs to Cruciferae family i.e. of cole crops. This crop is very important crop in respect to its rich nutrition. It is of two types where one is head forming and other does not bear head. Recently these both types of Chinese cabbage are being cultivated in commercial scale in Nepal. This crop is highly rich in Vitamin A, B C along with Calcium & Iron like minerals in remarkable quantity.
Climate & Soil:
This crop requires good drainage facility with soil pH of 5.5-7.5 and soil texture of sandy loam to clayey loam. Soil with high organic and biological matter is very additive for successful cultivation. Relatively cool climate is required as like for cauliflower for tis crop. Generally, areas where successful cultivation of cauliflower, cabbage, carrot is possible is also suitable for Chinese cabbage. Its cultivation is possible in Mid Hills and Terai region of Nepal from Ashoj to Falgun month however, in High hills it is cultivated from Chaitra to Jestha month.
At present two variety of head forming type are cultivated in Nepal which are Mitchieli and Yes Bheg 1 and between these two Yes Bheg 1 is hybrid variety. Seed production of this hybrid variety has started in Nepal so, it is available in Nepal. Apart from these, different hybrid varieties are imported in Nepal but Nepal is lacking to continue to produce hybrid production technology.
The recommended seed rate of Chinese cabbage is 30-40 gram per ropani. Seedlings of 2500-3000 numbers are required per ropani.
Planting and harvesting season varies according to geographical regions for most of the crops. The planting and harvesting season according to geographical region of Nepal is given below: –
|Domain||Planting Time||Harvesting Time|
|High Hills||Chaitra – Jestha||Jestha – Bhadra|
|Mid Hills||Bhadra – Kartik||Kartik – Falgun|
|Terai||Asoj – Kartik||Mangsir – Magh|
It is similar to production of cauliflower seedlings. Beds with 1m width are prepared with fine tilth. Soil must be loose and fine. Seed treatment with Thiram, Agrosan or Benlet fungicides and sow the seed at 10/10 cm apart line/rows with continuous sowing. Carefully take care of weed, insects and diseases for healthy seedling growth.
Land Preparation & Planting Technique:
Land preparation is very crucial in cultivating any crops successfully. Plough the field for 2-3 times making fine tilth. Ploughing should be done at least 15 days ahead of planting of seedlings. Prepare beds with 1.5 meters width and 15-20 cm height and of convenient length. Keep at least 40-50 cm gap between two beds for operating intercultural operations. Before making any beds, apply the recommended fertilizer in the soil and when nursery seedlings reach their 4-6th leaf stage, they are ready for transplantation.
Planting distance for this crop is recommended as 30 cm between plants and 50 cm between rows or lines. Plant in 4 lines in a single bed. Remember always plant the seedlings in the evening hours and apply water immediately after the transplantation. Irrigation is must continuously continued for 1 week.
Manuring & Fertilization:
Fertilizers are the basic requirement for plant growth. Plant requires all 17 essential elements for their proportionate growth and fruit development. Apply 1 ton well decomposed FYM per ropani during land preparation. For this crop, you can apply complexal: Potash: Urea at the ratio of 15: 5: 4 kg per ropani area. Top dressing of urea at 20/20 days interval after transplanting is essential.
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Weeding is primary concern for any vegetables. First weeding is done at 25-30 days after transplantation and second weeding is carried out at 50-60 days after transplantation. Earthing up is essential at the second weeding. Weeding can be carried at any period of time where, waiting for a month is not mandatory.
Sufficient amount of water is required for this crop. Especially, after crop transplantation and at heading stage, consistent amount of moisture should be maintained. This helps in proper growth and development of crop. However, water stagnation should be avoided otherwise damping off and soft rot are likely to occur. According to weather status, irrigation is given at 7-10 days interval.
Major pest occurring in this crop are:
- Cabbage butterfly
Learn the pest management of cole crops from our site here.
Major disease occurring in this crop is:
- Downy mildew
- Soft Rot
Learn the disease management of Cole crops from our site here.
Harvesting of this crop is generally done in the morning time after dew dries up. However, it can be harvested at the evening time. Harvesting is done using sharp knife keeping the stem intact removing the old and diseased leaves. Remember keep few inches of stem intact to the head for longer storability. After harvesting remove all the roots to keep field free from pest and disease to overwinter and attack next season.
Chinese cabbage is very high yielding crop. Average crop yield per ropani is 1000-2000 kg.