Introduction & Uses:
Black gram is second most cultivated and important legume crop in Nepal after lentil. Generally, this crop is cultivated in mid-hills, valleys, Tars & Besins of Nepal as mixed crop with Maize or as monocrop or in bunds of paddy field, slopy land. In Terai, it is generally cultivated as sole crop along the side of road and bunds of paddy field.
This crop is very rich in protein which contain 24% protein and abundant amount of phosphorus. Germinated seeds of black gram are very rich in amino acids and vitamins. Black gram is used to prepare Masyaura, Kwati, Roti, Bara, Furaula, Khichadi etc. Besides it is cultivated as green manure, husk of this crop is used in animal feed. Black gram pulse is recommended for diabetic patient and it is capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen into nitrate and nitrites which are used by plants.
Development of improved varieties to increase productivity can ensure food security in the country supplying essential nutrient and protein amount to people. This crop is sensitive to Calcium, Boron & Molybdenum micronutrients which need to be corrected in case of any deficiency.
The only one recommended variety of Black gram is Kalu released in 2046 BS and recommended domain is Hills and Valleys.
Some Recommendable varieties
- BLG 0076-2 (1442 Kg/ha), Maturity period: 66 days
- BLG 0069-1 (1357 Kg/ha), Maturity period: 70 days
- BLG 0072-1 (1438 Kg/ha), Maturity period: 75 days
- BLG 0003-1 (1442 Kg/ha), Maturity period: 68 days
- BLG 0067-1 (1700 Kg/ha), Maturity period: 73 days
- BLG 0068-2 (1700 Kg/ha), Maturity period: 63 days
This crop is cultivated in Summer and Rainy season in Nepal. Mid Hills region with altitude 700-1400m is quite suitable for its cultivation. For proper plant growth and development, temperature of 25-35 degree Celsius is essential. During the flowering period, heavy rain causes greater loss in production.
This crop requires zero water stagnation i.e. well drainage system with sandy loam and loamy soil texture. Soil pH is optimum between 6 to 7.5.
Soil should be tilled up to 15-30 cm deep removing all weeds and crop debris to make clean cultivation. Final tilling is done with incorporation of required manure, breaking clods and levelling the field.
Bavistin @ 2 gram per kg of seed is treated in order to avoid fungus diseases. Since this is nitrogen fixing crop, inoculate seed with rhizobium (KAU-BG-2) and (BG-12) @ 5 gram/kg seed mixing in 10% molasses solution as seed treatment.
Manuring depends upon soil fertility status and applied organic manure. The recommended fertilizer amount is 9: 90: 39 kg Urea: DAP: Potash along with 15 ton well decomposed FYM during the period of field preparation. Seed treatment with 5 grams molybdenum per kg seed has been found with higher production than conventional.
Planting time differs from planting area/domain, rainfall intensity & planting system. Seed sowing is best from second week of Jestha to last week of Ashad in case of mid hill. In Terai and inner-terai, last week of shrawn to second week of Bhadra during rainy season and from last week of Chaitra to second week of Baisakh during the summer season. Areas like Tanahun, Lamjung, Gorkha where it is cultivated after maize or Ghaiya, sowing is done during Bhadra month.
Spacing & Seed Rate:
Spacing during planting is 40-50 cm between lines /rows and plant to plant distance is 10 cm. But this crop is generally broadcasted in Nepal.
During summer season planting as sole crop requires 30 kg seed per hector i.e. 1 kg per kattha. During rainy season seed rate is different i.e. 20 kg seed per hector and 700 grams per kattha with at least 75% germination capacity.
Since, black gram is rainy season crop, generally it does not require irrigation but if drought continues for longer duration then irrigation is essential at that period. During pod filling stage, it requires irrigation and higher amount of irrigation is required during summer season.
Harvesting & Storage:
Black gram is ready to harvest when 85% pod are matured i.e. turn yellow color from green. After threshing by beating with stick or thresher, winnowing is essential to make clean harvest of black gram seeds. After cleaning through sieving, they are dried in the sun for 3-4 days up to stage when bitten it should make clean cut sound (Kuttuka). After that they should be stored keeping 1 tablet of Celphos in 1 quintal of Black gram harvest in airtight dry container to prevent from pulse beetle and other storage pests.
In mid hills areas, pod blight and yellow mosaic virus are prone at greater extent. During pod maturity stage, if rainfall is high, these diseases will attack. Late planting and disease tolerant varieties are management of these crops. Seed treatment with Bavistin @ 2.5 gram per kg of seed and crop rotation with minimum of 3 years with non-legume crops can help to avoid diseases.
Disease of Black gram are similar to Lentil. For further disease management techniques Learn from here.
Leaf eating caterpillars, leaf rollers are most abundant pests in Black gram. For management of these insects, Deltamethrin 250 EC @ 1 ml/liter water should be sprayed. For leaf roller, spray Metasystox 255 EC @ 1 ml/liter water.
For further pest management techniques Learn from here.