Seed production of Tomato, Brinjal, Chilly & Capsicum
Seed production is very specialized & technical branch of the vegetable industry which is carried in regions where climatic conditions are favorable for seed production. In Nepal, it is possible to produce seeds of almost all vegetable crops. A well- organized vegetable seed industry has been established in Nepal since last decade.
Following points should be considered for establishing a garden for seed production:
- The plot of same vegetable crops should be kept sufficiently apart so that natural crossing can be avoided. So, isolation distance of 300-600 m is maintained for cross-pollinated & 100-200 m in self -pollinated crops.
- The site for seed bed should be clean land which is not only weed free but also free from major soil borne diseases & pests.
- Adequate rouging is important for seed production. Rouges are removed at earlier possible date flowering. At least three rouging is necessary.
- About 60% of vegetable crops are cross-pollinated or insect pollinated. For insect pollinated crops, provision of honey bees in hives in close proximity will ensure greatly increased seed yield. Bumble bee & other insects are useful as pollinators.
- Application of insecticides, dusts & spray should be done early in the morning or evening when bees are inactive to avoid bee injury.
For the seed production, it is essential to produce healthy crop & plant should be true to the type. It is essential to maintain isolation distance of 50-100 m with other varieties. Agronomic practices are same as for vegetable purpose. Crop should be inspected and the off type & diseased plants are removed. The extraction of seed from the ripe fruits is done as below:
- Fermentation method:
- Alkali treatment:
- Acid treatment:
Ripe fruits are crushed in non-metallic box by hand. No fruit juice should be allowed to drain out. Entire mass is kept for 24-72 hours depending upon high & low temperature. Seed will settle down at the bottom of bucket or box. Remove the fermented mass & clean the seed 8-10 times in clean water than dried in shade.
In this method, the seed slurry is mixed with 10% washing soda with equal volume & kept overnight. The liquid is decanted off 7 seeds are washed with tap water. This method is safest & best among the seed extraction methods.
About 100 ml of commercial hydrochloric acid is thoroughly mixed to 14 kg of crushed tomato fruit slurry. The seeds separate out from the pulp within half an hour, which may be cleaned up & dried.
The quantity of fruits required to produce 1 kg of tomato seeds varies from 150-200 kg depending on the variety.
The practices normally followed for the crop fruit production need to be adopted for seed production also. It is self pollinated crop but cross pollination may also take place. So, the two varieties meant for foundation seed production may be kept 200 m apart to avoid contamination.
Learn the cultivation technique of brinjal.
For the purpose of seed production, the ripe fruits turned yellow are crushed and stored overnight so that the seed after washing with water is sieved & dried. The washing is usually done in the morning so that the seed is at least half dried during the day otherwise it may germinate.
It has recorded a seed yield of 590-880 kg/ha.
Chilly & Capsicum:
The cultivation of chilly & capsicum is exactly the same as for growing dry chillies. It is considered as a self-pollinated crop but cross pollination takes place to a greater extent. To obtain pure seeds, the two varieties may be kept 400 m apart to avoid any contamination. For seed, extracted healthy and well-developed fruits should be preserved. The seed should be extracted after breaking the dry shells of fruits. The average seed yield of chillies and capsicum per hector is 50-80 kg/ha & 100-225 kg respectively.
Learn cultivation technique of chilly & capsicum here.