Scientific Goat Farming: Learn shed construction, breed selection, feeding & breeding herd management

Scientific Goat Farming

Goat farming is getting popularity across the country in the present decades. Commercial & systematic farming of livestock has driven the subsistence level of farming to business oriented farming in farmers level. Actually, scientific goat farming involves management of different aspects & requirements of goat. Some important points to follow for scientific & systematic goat farming are mentioned briefly below.

  1. Initially construct improvised shed for goat.
  2. Plant leguminous fodder tree & grass in the bunds of field around house & in the baren land which will be adequate throughout the year.

Legunimous fodder: Soybean, Mendola, Epilepil, Koiralo, Tanki etc.

Tree fodder: Bakaino, kimbu, Nimaro etc

Leguminous grass: Berseem, Badame, White clover etc

Non-leguminous grass: Nepiyar, Paspalam, Oat grass, Makai ghans etc.

Leguminous & non-leguminous both grass & fodder is mixed in ratio 2:1 (Non-leguminous: Leguminous).

For every 6kg weight of goat, 1 kg fodder or grass must be fed.

  1. Along with grass, homemade feed like maize, broken rice, mustard cake, wheat barn, pulse barn etc should be feed regularly. Feed such nutritious feeds to mother goat before mating with breeding buck which ensures chance of having twin kids with higher birth weight.
  2. Selection of suitable breed:

Local breeds:

  1. Chyangra
  2. Sinhal
  3. Khari
  4. Terai goats

Exotic breeds:

  1. Boer
  2. Barberi
  3. Sannen
  4. Beetal
  5. Sirohi
  6. Jamunapari

Hybrid goats:

  1. Boer cross (Khari and Boer)
  2. Jamunapari cross (Khari and Jamunapari)
  3. Barberi cross (Khari & Barberi)
  4. Sannen cross (Khari & Sannen)
  5. Keep mineral block hanging around the goat shed & feed them regularly to fulfill the minerals requirements.
  6. Use breeding buck only from mother goat giving birth to twin kids which are healthy with higher birth weight.
  7. Use breeding buck which is not related to family line of the mother goat.
  8. Selection is done for such mother goats only which calves at least 3 times within 2 years giving twin kids most of the time for rearing purpose.
  9. Feed cholesterol milk within 1 hour of birth to new young ones.
  10. If male kid is born, castration is done within 2 months.
  11. Treat against lice & ticks if found in the kid`s body.
  12. Feed the anti-helminthic medicine within 1 month of birth. After that use medicine monthly from shrawn to kartik whereas from the upcoming month use medicine only after testing the feces.
  13. Only after the anti-helminthic medicine, vaccine is given 1 week after that medicine. At least administered vaccine against PPR disease once a year.
  14. For easy identification & record keeping of performance of each goat, tagging is necessary. Insurance for every goat should be done.
  15. Keep health & production/performance record of each goat.
  16. At least the weight of castrated male goat must be 30+ kg within the year for profit making from systematic goat farming.

 

Tips for constructing improvised goat farm/shed:

  1. Site selection for well drainage area with plenty of morning sunlight should be selected.
  2. Construct the shed according to breed of goat using locally available materials to reduce the cost of production.
  3. Make separate shed for pregnant goat, kids, breeding buck, calved mother goat & heifers.
  4. Height of shed must be at least 1m from the ground for easy cleaning of shed. Make slopy land structure just below the shed.
  5. Make sure that, goat legs do not stick in the logs used in shed. For that length of each log should be 4cm with 0.5-inch gap between two logs.
  6. As far as possible use grass roof in goat shed with water leakage proof. Feeding stall (Tatno) is set up inside the shed & outside too for easy feeding.
  7. Hang the appropriate size of mineral block in the goat shed for daily feeding to goats.
  8. Keep windows inside shed for better air flow or aeration.
  9. Required stall size for each goat:
S.N. Age group Area (meter square)/goat
1 Kids (<3 months) 0.5
2 Kids (3-10 months) 0.9
3 Dry & adult goat 1
4 Pregnant goat 1.5
5 Breeding buck 2.5

 

Site selection:

  1. Site selection for well drainage area with plenty of morning sunlight should be selected.
  2. Grazing area & fodder can be easily developed.
  3. Availability of clean water
  4. For Terai: face North or west side

For Hilly area: face East or South

 Other important points:

  1. Keep pregnant mother goat separate 1week before kidding continued for 1 week after the kidding.
  2. During winter season, death of kids is due to severe cold. So, to prevent such mortality, cover the shed using jute sacks during winter all around the sheds.
  3. Spray disinfectant solution like phenol 3% (1-part phenol in 30 part water) to keep shed safe from bacteria & microbes.
  4. Spray from time to time to prevent parasite like lice, ticks, flee attacking goat to make healthier goat & get rid from such trouble.
  5. Keep breeding buck & mother goat separately restrained in shed to prevent inbreeding & miscarriage of the pregnant goat.
  6. Keep sick & newly bought goat in separate pen to prevent spread of disease among the other goats & prevent unnecessary economic loss.

Reproduction Management:

It means after birth of female kid, within seven month it must undergo mating & give first parturition within 1 year followed by again undergoing mating within 3 months, develop ability to give twin kids during each parturition which can be cared by mother goat with her milk.

Points to remember:

  1. Selection of quality mother goat & breeding buck.
  2. Reproduction among quality breeding buck & mother goat.
  3. Avoid breeding within family line/progeny line.
  4. Special care of buck & mother goats.
  5. Special care of pregnant mother.
  6. Care & management of newly born kids.
  7. Reproductive production record keeping

Calculate the bodyweight of goat you reared here.

Source: Heifer International Nepal.

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