Okra(Bhindi): Learn uses, origin, varieties, cultivation, post-harvest care & seed production

Introduction & Uses:

Okra commonly called as Lady`s finger of bhindi (Abelmoschus esculentus) is widely grown crop from tropics to sub-tropics & warmer part of temperate zones of Nepal. Tender fruit are used as vegetable whereas matured fruits & stem containing crude fibers which are used in paper industry. The medicinal properties of okra are associated with genito-urinary disorders, spermatorrhoea, & chronic dysentery. It is rich in vitamin A, B & C with little iron.

Origin:

It is believed to be originated from Africa or Asia (Thompson & Kelly).

Facts:

Herbaceous annual with bisexual flower.

Self-pollinated crop but usually upto 10% cross pollination occurs by insects which makes it as often cross-pollinated crop.

Varieties:

The major recommended varieties of okra in Nepal are:

  • Parvati
  • Arka Anamika
  • Jaya

Introduced varieties include:

  • Pusa sawani
  • Parbhani Kranti
  • Pusa Makhmali
  • Pusa A-4
  • Varsha Uphar
  • Hissar Unnat

Hybrid varieties include:

DVR-1, DVR-2, Varsha and Vijaya, Adhunik and panchali, Hybrid No 6

Cultivation technique:

Climate & Soil:

It requires hot & humid weather for growth of okra. Soil temperature required for germination is 16 degree Celsius whereas optimum temperature required is 24-27 degree Celsius. It is desirable to maintain range of 30-35 degree Celsius for optimum pollination.

Light soil ranging from sandy loam to loam is better for its growth. Heavy soil requires good drainage facility for better performance & ideal pH is 6.0-7.5.

Manuring & Fertilization:

The recommended dose of fertilizer for okra is 20 tons of well decomposed FYM & 160: 120: 60 kg NPK/ha. Full dose of P & K with FYM are applied at the time of field preparation with 1/3rd nitrogen fertilizer. Remaining dose of nitrogen should be applied after 4 weeks of sowing & at flowering period.

Sowing season:

It can be grown all round the year except the frost & extreme cold. The sowing & harvesting period at different geographical regions are tabulated below:

Geographical Region Sowing Harvesting
High Hills April-May June-July
Mid Hills Feb-June May-Sept
Terai January-June April-Sept

 

Sowing System:

Okra should be planted in ridges during summer season with priming for 12-24 hours. Ridges & lines should be prepared in east-west direction for easy passing of air during summer & rainy season. Seed drill can be used.

Seed rate & Spacing:

Seed rate:

Summer: 20-35 kg/ha

Rainy: 10-12 kg/ha

Spacing:

Summer: 30-45 * 20-30 (cm * cm)

Rainy: 60 * 30 (cm * cm)

For hybrids: 60 * 40 (cm * cm)

Irrigation:

Sufficient moisture is essential during period of sowing. First irrigation should be given after the seed has germinated subsequent irrigation, may be given at interval of 4-5 days in summer.

Intercultural operation:

Weed competition is higher for okra crop that account for more than 50% yield loss. Hoeing & weeding should be done at regular intervals. It requires 2-3 weeding in summer with frequent in rainy. Pre- plant application of pendimethalin @ 0.75 kg ai/ha with 1 hand weeding at 40 days after sowing is recommended.

Harvesting & Yield:

Young pods tender & free from fibers should be harvested at every three to four days interval. Frequent picking is essential to increase the fruiting & yield of okra.

An average yield of 6-8 tons green fruits per hector during spring-summer & 9-13 tons in rainy season is optimum.

Post-harvest Handling:

Since fruits are perishable, they degrade after harvesting. For local market long fruits are graded, cooled & filled in jute bags or baskets, covered or stitched & then water is sprinkled over them. It helps in maintaining turgidity of fruits & save products from bruises, blemishes & blackening.

Suitable storage condition is at 7-9 degree Celsius with 7075% RH for couple of days.

How can you produce okra seed?

Seed production:

Isolation distance between two varieties is 400 m since it is often pollinated crop. No special agronomic practices. When green fruits lose their green color & become hard, they are harvested. To avoid shattering of seeds it should be picked periodically before fruit burst from top. Fruits are dried for week & finally threshed. Average yield is 1012 quintal/ha.

Leave comment

dev