- Botanical name: Fragaria ananassa
- Origin: Europe
- ananassa is natural hybrid
- Fragaria chiloensis × Fragaria virginiana
- Flavour is due to Ethyle butanoate and Ethyle hexanoate
- Strawberry can be used differently like fruit, jam, juice and wine, chocolates, flavouring etc.
- In Nepal, strawberry is grown on a very limited scale in scattered pockets, concentrated in Kakani (Nuwakot) and periphery.
- Monoecious, short day, low perennial herb and quick growing fruit plant
- Rich in vitamin C and iron
- Flowers are borne in small cluster and white in colour
- Type of inflorescence: Dichotomic raceme
- Type of fruit: Etaerio of achenes
- Major pollinator: Honey bee
- Edible portion: Succulent receptacle
- Chromosome no.(2n) = 56 (8x)
- Contains high amount of folic acid so, good for artherosclerosis, vascular disease decline in cognitive function patients
- Reduce heart attack risk, (3 + strawberries daily)
- High amount of vitamin C
- Contains anthocyanins which is powerful antioxidant (sun)
- Strawberry also contains significant levels of ellagic acid, which is thought to be an anticarcinogenic.
- Thickened stem
- Growing point at upper end
- Roots at base
- New leaves and flower clusters emerge from “fleshy buds” in the crown in the early spring
- Crown growth and development occur when temperatures are above 500 F
- Maintain 3-4 crowns per plant
Three types of strawberries are available:
- June bearers which fruit once each season
- Day neutrals that fruit several times each season
- Ever bearers that despite their name, fruit twice each season
Cultivated Varieties in Nepal:
- Previously, Nyoho onho variety were widely cultivated recently, Ankhime and Eyeberry varieties are also introduced
- Scattered varieties in Nepal
- Pusa early dwarf, king`s seedling, Canbridge vigour, Chandler
- Runners – Most common
- Use those formed after blooming
- Early formed runners are vigorous, productive and have better root establishment
- Runners are hard to find in semi-arid regions
- Stem cutting also done
- Propagation by seed done for varietal improvement
- Important to buy disease free plants from reliable nursery.
- grows well under temperate climate.
- They flower and set strawberries whenever the temperature is 20C to 290C (350F to 850F)
- With availability of new cultivars, it can be cultivated in tropical and subtropical conditions
- Daylight period of 12 hrs or less and but differs with cultivars
- Minimum of 6 hours of sunlight.
- Sep- oct is ideal time for planting
- They give quality fruits in spring
- Plugged saplings
- Bare rooted saplings
Prefer growing sapling from runner in hills
Or, Store runners in 00 C during summer and plant in October
- High in organic matter.
- Sandy loam to loamy soil
- Slightly acidic for root formation – 5.7 to 6.5 pH.
- Strawberry plants are highly sensitive to salt. Too much salt n your soil can cause “leaf scorch,”
- Start 1 month before planting.
- Use as much organic matter as possible.
- Create beds – hill or matted rows, or raised for better
- Apply fertilizer a few days before planting
- Wet the beds with irrigation water upto 75% water holding capacity of soil
- In pH neutral irrigation water, mix 30 ml ACUROSIL NANO+ in 1 ltr of water
- Apply this solution @ 1 litre / m2
- Leave this field undisturbed for 12 hours
- For effective application, only apply on the raised bed where plantation is to be done.
- The runners are usually planted at 90-110 cm X 45-60 cm spacing
- After the initial growth of the first year, runners are allowed to cover the whole space
- It gives appearance like mat so called as matted row
- Moderate to weak in producing runners.
- Similar to Matted row but the daughter plants are spaced at definite distances by covering the selected tips of runners with soil which become plants
- This is done till the desired number of daughter plants are obtained for each mother plant
- The runners formed later on are removed.
Principle: Achieving large fruit size and excellent quality on a regular basis can only be achieved with first-year plants
- This system is followed for the cultivars developing a few runners
- All runners are removed from the mother plant.
- The individual plants become large and bear more than those in matted row.
- The plants are planted 25-35cm × 25-35 cm apart in twin rows
- Single row is also practiced
- Mulching is an important operation in strawberry cultivation
- Be done just after planting (before start their growth) for checking weed growth and
- conserving moisture in the soil
- Fruit rotting is also reduced by inorganic mulch.
- It is two types:
- Inorganic mulch – Black plastic film (widely used) and silver plastic film
- Organic mulch – leaves, wheat and paddy straw, news-paper and dry grasses etc.
- Silver or black plastic film is used
- control weed and conserve moisture
- Silver plastic are used in hot areas, to distract insects
- Black plastic help increase soil temperature
- With black plastic scalding of berries take place in hot days
- In this system berries are kept clean and reduced the rot and mold.
- The plants bloom earlier.
- Strawberry being a shallow rooted
- Plant requires more frequent but less amount of water in each irrigation
- First two months – Twice per week without rain
- Third month – Weekly
- Fourth and fifth months -Every two weeks
- Fruiting begins – Increase again for larger fruits
- With drip irrigation apply water @200 ml/ plant/day
- A fertilizer dose of 25-50 tonnes farmyard manure
- 75-100: 80-120:40-80 kg NPK/ha
- FYM are mix the soil at preparation of planting bed
- Half dose of K2O and full dose of P2O5 are placed in the planting rows at 15-20 cm depth
- Half N is should be broadcast in inter-row spaces one month after planting
- Remaining N and K2O should be side dressed at the time of flowering
- Foliar spraying of N @ 0.5%, P2O5 @ 0.2% and K2O @ 0.5% during crop establishment is advisable.
- Strawberry plant requires 200 ml water per day
- Apply through drip considering soil condition and class
- Early growth – 1st fruit set – 3:1:4 NPK
- 1st fruit set – end harvest – 2 :1 :4
- Post-Harvest – 2 :2 :3
- All at 3 – 4 kg/ha/wk N
- Application of GA3 (50 ppm) After 4 days of flowering and MH (0.1-0.3%) after flowering increases yield by 31-41%
- Morphaction (50 ppm) inproves fruit size.
- Flower stem should be removed as they appear on plant after planting
- If not removed, flowers create a drain on the plant, reducing their vitality, number and size of daughter plant
- In Hill system, runners should be cut as and when they appear. With matted row system surplus plant should be removed
- Keep the crop weed-free during first season by cultivating, applying herbicides or plastic mulch
- It should be ensured that soil remains around the crown without covering them
- Make sure the fruits don’t touch soil or fruit may rot.
- Fruiting happens after 3 to 4 months
- Slightly soft darkening seeds
- Harvest daily, early morning, dry conditions
- Non- climacteric, harvest when fully ripe
- Pinch between thumb and forefinger, pull with twisting motion, leave stem on fruit.
- Strawberry is highly perishable
- commodity so this can store for maximum 7-10 days
- At 00 C and 90-95 RH.