Pomegranate : Learn uses, flowering, cultivation, training, physiological disorders, pest & diseases

Pomegranate

Introduction:

  • Punica granatum, punicaceae
  • The plants are long-lived and bear fruit for decades.
  • Pomegranate trees are self-fruitful: self-pollinating.
  • The branches tend to be slender and thorny, while the leaves are glossy and dark green
  • Bloom begins in October and continues through to December, either in a continuous manner or in three to four flushes (variety dependent).

Uses:

  • As table fruit
  • As canned juice

Flowering:

  • Two types of flowers: hermaphroditic and male.
  • The hermaphroditic fruit-bearing flowers can be identified by their fuller, more rounded base, which appears somewhat peanut or bell-shaped.
  • The majority male non-fruit bearing flowers will be narrower and vase shaped and will drop.

Climate & Soil:

  • Requires colder winters and hot summers,
  • High summer rainfall and high relative humidity, causes high incidence of fungal diseases
  • The mature tree can tolerate frost when fully dormant, but will be injured especially during the first three years after establishing,
  • In fully dormant trees, temperatures of –10°C could be tolerated. High summer temperatures of up to 38°C + can be an advantage to good ripening and developing of fruit to its optimal size (and color).
  • Light sandy soil, pH of 6.5-7.5.

Varieties:

The commonly available varieties of pomegranate are:

   Ganesh

  • Muscat Red
  • Papper Shell
  • Velludu
  • Poona
  • Vedana
  • Alandi
  • Kandhari

Planting & Manuring:

  • Rooted hardwood cuttings are planted as bare root trees (without soil) in late winter or early spring.
  • Normally from mid-August to end September.
  • Planting holes of 0.5m x 0.5m x 0.5m in size is digged two month before planting. 25 kg FYM (1 doko), 5kg ash, 500 grams bone ash, 200 grams nitrogen, 100 grams phosphorus, 200 grams mop, & 25 grams furadan is applied inter-mixing each other to fill the pit.
  • At the center of pit, after 2 months plants are planted.Manure or compost can be used in planting holes.
  • Spacing: 5×3 m
  • Recommended dose of chemical fertilizer is 250: 200: 200 kg NPK per ha is referred.
  • Ring method must be followed while applying fertilizer. Ring perimeter is increased every year with 1.5 meters from base of plant of 5 years old.

Mulching:

Mulching with grass straw or hay or paddy straw around 1-meter perimeter of plant with enough thickness is necessary. Do not cover the stem of sapling which can propagate insect & disease attack. Mulch helps is moisture maintenance & weed control.

Clean the orchard repeatedly to make healthy growth of saplings. Apply 5-8 ml of glyphosate in 1 liter of water & spray in between the saplings to control the weed.

Training:

Multi trunk & single trunk system are followed in Pomegranate. In multi trunk system more than one trunk is allowed is grow whereas in single trunk system only one trunk is allowed.

Harvesting:

  • Early cultivars will begin to ripen near the end of August, and will continue through to October or early November for the late-maturing cultivars.
  • In general, the acids should be lower than 1.85 percent, TSS 16 to 17 percent and the sugar: acid ratio greater than 18.5.

Physiological disorders:

Sun burn

  • Warmer areas where summer air temperatures normally rise above 40°C.
  • Exposure of the fruit to intense sunlight can cause sunburn damage in the form of large black spots on the fruit skin, which render the fruit unmarketable.
  • Bagging of fruit (paper bags),
  • Adjusting of fertilization and irrigation regimes as well as orchard covering (netting).

Fruit cracking:

Cause: Moisture imbalance

  • Remedy: 40 ppm of 2,4-D
  • 75ppm of GA3
  • 0.5% of borax

Similarly, internal cracking is also seen in pomegranate.

Diseases:

  • Crown rot (Coniella granati) &
  • Alternaria rot

Pests:

False coding moth:

  • Control of false coding moth is difficult because the moth has many alternative hosts so re-infestation can occur.
  • Parasitoids of T. leucotreta has been identified, and mass release of Trichogrammoidea spp. has been practiced with effect.

Mealybug: Follow the following controlling measures for mealy bug

  • Ladybird beetle can be released.
  • Spray 3.125 liters of Dimethoate 30 EC in 1250 liters of water per hector.

Aphids: For controlling aphids use following methods:-

  • spray rogor @ 2ml/liter of water at regular interval.
  • Spray the crop with Thiodane 1.5 ml/liter of water at 10 days interval.

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