- Punica granatum, punicaceae
- The plants are long-lived and bear fruit for decades.
- Pomegranate trees are self-fruitful: self-pollinating.
- The branches tend to be slender and thorny, while the leaves are glossy and dark green
- Bloom begins in October and continues through to December, either in a continuous manner or in three to four flushes (variety dependent).
- As table fruit
- As canned juice
- Two types of flowers: hermaphroditic and male.
- The hermaphroditic fruit-bearing flowers can be identified by their fuller, more rounded base, which appears somewhat peanut or bell-shaped.
- The majority male non-fruit bearing flowers will be narrower and vase shaped and will drop.
Climate & Soil:
- Requires colder winters and hot summers,
- High summer rainfall and high relative humidity, causes high incidence of fungal diseases
- The mature tree can tolerate frost when fully dormant, but will be injured especially during the first three years after establishing,
- In fully dormant trees, temperatures of –10°C could be tolerated. High summer temperatures of up to 38°C + can be an advantage to good ripening and developing of fruit to its optimal size (and color).
- Light sandy soil, pH of 6.5-7.5.
The commonly available varieties of pomegranate are:
- Muscat Red
- Papper Shell
Planting & Manuring:
- Rooted hardwood cuttings are planted as bare root trees (without soil) in late winter or early spring.
- Normally from mid-August to end September.
- Planting holes of 0.5m x 0.5m x 0.5m in size is digged two month before planting. 25 kg FYM (1 doko), 5kg ash, 500 grams bone ash, 200 grams nitrogen, 100 grams phosphorus, 200 grams mop, & 25 grams furadan is applied inter-mixing each other to fill the pit.
- At the center of pit, after 2 months plants are planted.Manure or compost can be used in planting holes.
- Spacing: 5×3 m
- Recommended dose of chemical fertilizer is 250: 200: 200 kg NPK per ha is referred.
- Ring method must be followed while applying fertilizer. Ring perimeter is increased every year with 1.5 meters from base of plant of 5 years old.
Mulching with grass straw or hay or paddy straw around 1-meter perimeter of plant with enough thickness is necessary. Do not cover the stem of sapling which can propagate insect & disease attack. Mulch helps is moisture maintenance & weed control.
Clean the orchard repeatedly to make healthy growth of saplings. Apply 5-8 ml of glyphosate in 1 liter of water & spray in between the saplings to control the weed.
Multi trunk & single trunk system are followed in Pomegranate. In multi trunk system more than one trunk is allowed is grow whereas in single trunk system only one trunk is allowed.
- Early cultivars will begin to ripen near the end of August, and will continue through to October or early November for the late-maturing cultivars.
- In general, the acids should be lower than 1.85 percent, TSS 16 to 17 percent and the sugar: acid ratio greater than 18.5.
- Warmer areas where summer air temperatures normally rise above 40°C.
- Exposure of the fruit to intense sunlight can cause sunburn damage in the form of large black spots on the fruit skin, which render the fruit unmarketable.
- Bagging of fruit (paper bags),
- Adjusting of fertilization and irrigation regimes as well as orchard covering (netting).
Cause: Moisture imbalance
- Remedy: 40 ppm of 2,4-D
- 75ppm of GA3
- 0.5% of borax
Similarly, internal cracking is also seen in pomegranate.
- Crown rot (Coniella granati) &
- Alternaria rot
False coding moth:
- Control of false coding moth is difficult because the moth has many alternative hosts so re-infestation can occur.
- Parasitoids of T. leucotreta has been identified, and mass release of Trichogrammoidea spp. has been practiced with effect.
Mealybug: Follow the following controlling measures for mealy bug
- Ladybird beetle can be released.
- Spray 3.125 liters of Dimethoate 30 EC in 1250 liters of water per hector.
Aphids: For controlling aphids use following methods:-
- spray rogor @ 2ml/liter of water at regular interval.
- Spray the crop with Thiodane 1.5 ml/liter of water at 10 days interval.