Pear : Learn uses, cultivation techniques, manuring, training, harvesting, diseases & pests management

 Pear

Introduction:

  • Genus pyrus originated in the mountainous region of the eastern china
  • Indigenous pear or mayal (pyrus pashia) is found growing in Nepal
  • Pear is cultivated in the mid hill region
  • Pharping is famous for pear

 

Botany:

  • Family: Rosaceae
  • Sub-family: Pomoideae
  • Chromosome no (x): 17
  • Inflorescence is indeterminate umbel like raceme
  • Fruit is pome with persistent or deciduous calyx.

 

Species & Cultivars:

  1. European pear/ Common (Pyrus communis):
  • Pear flavoured, very soft, and melting texture with persistent calyx
  • Susceptible to fire blight disease
  • Required high chilling period (>1000 hrs)
  • Varieties: Barlett, Williams, Buerre, Hardy (late variety), Anjou, Comice, Conference etc
  1. Oriental/Japanese/Asiatic pear (Pyrus pyrifloia, serotia, pashia):
  • Apple like flavoured, crispy and juicy with deciduous calyx
  • Good keeping quality
  • Needs low chilling (<1000 hrs)
  • More common in Nepal
  • Varieties: pharping local (late variety), hosui, kosui, chojure, Havana etc

 

Cultivation Techniques:

Climate:

  • Needs wide range of climatic conditions as low as -26 in dormancy and high as 45degree Celsius.
  • Pear does little better in warmer condition than apple
  • Chilling period of 900-1000 hrs below 7 is require to induce flowering
  • European pear requires high chilling than Asian
  • Spring frost is extremely danger to pear
  • 100cm rainfall is desirable

Soil:

  • Survive better on wet soil condition than apple
  • Well drained, fertile, deep soil with good water holding capacity is required
  • Ph 5.5-6.5

Irrigation:

  • Needs at least once a week for 3 months after planting and then 2-3 times a week in spring
  • Necessary especially during young stage and fruit development
  • Basins should be made free of weeds around the tree and mulch with straw or dried leaves.

Fruit thinning:

  • To have larger and quality fruit thinning is done
  • Thinning is practiced in cultivars having heavy fruit set like Barlett, Beurre Hardy, Anjou
  • One fruit per 30-40 leaves should be retained.

Planting:

  • Season: late winter season
  • Requires less spacing than apple
  • Optimum planting distance 4-6 m
  • Quince rootstock at 2-3 m
  • Pit size 60-75 cm3

Flowering Habit:

  • inflorescence contains7-8 flowers which is indeterminate
  • flower bud is formed on the terminal of shoots or spurs 2 years old branches
  • all species are self-sterile, cross fertile
  • keeping bee hive in the orchard help in cross pollination

Propagation:

  • Bench grafting in winter
  • Cleft and bark grafting for top working
  • Hard wood cutting also possible in pear
  • Mayal (pyrus pashia) are extremely used
  • Quince stocks are generally prepared by layering

Manuring & Fertilization:

  • Full dose of FYM, phosphorus and half nitrogen applied in winter and remaining nitrogen in after harvesting of fruits.
  • Srivastava (1974) and Nauriyal and Prakash (1990) recommended 25g N, 15g P and 25g K in the first year and increase dose in subsequent year

Calculate required fertilizer from here.

Training & Pruning:

  • Trained in open Centre or vase system
  • It is done by cutting the young plant to a height of 60 cm from the ground and allowing 3-4 branches to develop
  • The height from the base to the first scaffold branch should not be less than 40 cm.

 

Harvesting:

  • Harvesting time is determined by slight change in fruit color green to yellow and easy separation of fruits
  • Depending on cultivars fruit ready for harvest from 70 days after full bloom (china pear) to 135 days (barlett)
  • While harvesting petiole should remain attached with fruit

Yield:

Oriental pear                200 kg/tree/year

European pear              50-70kg/tree/year

Hybrid pear                  100 kg/tree/year

 

Diseases:

  • fire blight (Erwinia amylovora)
  • Spreads from tree to tree primarily during the bloom period
  • Foliar spray of streptomycin 50 ppm at 5-12 times throughout the spring and early summer
  • pear decline:
  • Caused by mycoplasma
  • Transmitted by the vector, pear psylla
  • The psylla is controlled, pear decline will be eliminated

Insect pest:

  • Pear psylla: Cacopsylla pyricola
  • Most important pest of pear
  • It secretes honeydew which makes leaves and fruit sticky
  • Controlled by spraying malathion when eggs hatch in to nymphs
  • Defoliating beetle
  • Important pest of Asian pears
  • Feed on the young leaves
  • Adult hide underground during day and come out at night
  • Caught by using light traps.

 

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