Coffee : A favorite drink of civilized world, learn uses, species, cultivation, roasting & processing technique

 

“Coffee – the favorite drink of the civilized world.”

Introduction:

  • Coffea spp, rubiacea
  • Derived from arabic word “quahweh” meaning wine.
  • Later transformed to word coffee.
  • Turkish – kahweh, French- café, Italian- kaffee, Dutch- Koffie
  • The genus Coffea is native to tropical Africa (specifically having its origin in Ethiopia and Sudan) and Madagascar, the Comoros, Mauritius.
  • In Nepal around 1960 Mr. Hira giri brought seeds of coffee from Burma in Aapchaur, Gulmi.

Legend:

  • Coffee grown worldwide can trace its heritage back centuries to the ancient coffee forests on the Ethiopian plateau.
  • There, legend says the goat herder Kaldi first discovered the potential of these beloved beans. 
  • The story goes that that Kaldi discovered coffee after he noticed that after eating the berries from a certain tree, his goats became so energetic that they did not want to sleep at night. 
  • Kaldi reported his findings to the abbot of the local monastery, who made a drink with the berries and found that it kept him alert through the long hours of evening prayer.
  • The abbot shared his discovery with the other monks at the monastery, and knowledge of the energizing berries began to spread.

Species of Coffee:

Botany:

 Evergreen small tree or shrub

  • The leaves range in colour from yellowish to dark green; the newly developed leaves of some varieties are bronzed, others purple-tinged
  • dense clusters of white fragrant flowers,
  • some species have flowers which are cream, even tinged with pink or purplish red and without fragrance.
  • have opposite leaves and branches

Differences of Arabica & Robusta Coffee

 

Area

Arabica

Robusta

Commerce

Found in cafes and specially food shops.

Found in supermarkets in cans/jars of instant coffee. Better grades found in fine espresso blends.

Retail Price

Highest

Lowest

Quality of Coffee

Produces superior quality coffees for the espresso coffee trade.

Produces less quality coffee quality for the instant coffee trade.

Taste

Range from sweet-soft to sharp-tangy-flavor full-bodied coffee, smooth in taste yet bright.

Often described as tasting grain-like, oatmeal, woody, astringent flavor. More bitter/sharper.

Production costs

High due to labor insensitivity and difficult access high slopes.

Less expensive to maintain-lower production costs-some mechanical harvesting.

Plant yield

1 to 1.5 pounds of green coffee per year or 1500-3000 kg beans/ha.

2 to 3 pounds of green coffee a year, or 2300-4000 kg beans/ha.

Production %

75% of the world`s coffee production.

25% of total world`s coffee production.

 

Area

Arabica

Robusta

Bean size & shape

Larger, slightly elongated and flat.

Smaller, rounded and domed.

Caffeine content of beans

0.8% to 1.4% average 1.2%

1.7% to 4% average 2%

Color before roasting

Green with silver/bluish shades.

Yellow to light brown.

Smell-unroasted

Sometimes likened to blueberries.

Often described as raw peanuts.

Smell-roasted

Perfumery with fruity notes and sugary tones.

Often likened to brunt rubber.

Area

Arabica

Robusta

Plant type

Tree

Shrub

Chromosomes (2n)

44

22

First described

1753

1895

Root system

Deep

Shallow

Mutation

Self-pollinating -autogamous – tetraploid

Cross pollination – allogamy – diploid

Plant size

Smaller

Larger

Plant height

14 to 20 feet fully grown

32feet in height as a shrub

Propagation:

By seed

  • Selection of mother plant
  • Selection of beeries
  • Harvesting of cherries
  • Dipping in bucket
  • Removal of pulp and mucilage substance
  • Seed viability up to 4 months
  • Preparation of bed (1m width, 20 cm height and required length).
  • Planting of seed (10 cm * 5cm)
  • Mulching
  • Transplanting on poly bag
  • Keep on shade

Propagation of Coffee by stem cuttings:

  • Most commonly used form of vegetative propagation on an industrial scale.
  • Internodes of orthotropic suckers are taken from selected clones and rooted in special nurseries (humified areas of a general nursery).
  • Orthotropic stem cuttings grow into a well-shaped coffee plant.
  • Plagiotropic stem cuttings only grow horizontally into coffee bushes.
  • The internodal sections in the cuttings prepared develop their roots in a porous in a humid environment.
  • The successfully hardened clones are transplanted into the field after 6-8 months in the nursery.

Planting:

  • Soil ph 6- 6.5 if less than 6 use dolomite lime 70% and gypsum 30%.
  • Planted in triangular, square or contour system
  • Planting distance 2.5m * 2m
  • Planting pit: 45 cm*45 cm*45 cm
  • Mix top soil, 5 kg fym, 250 gm neem cake or mustard oil cake and 200 gm lime.

Season: monsoon

Shade mangement :  Ficus, Artocarpus, Gravelia, Alibizia

 

Nutrient Management:

Age of tree (yrs)

Nutrients demand kg/ha/year

N

P 2O 5

K 2O

1

30-49

0

30-40

2

60-80

0

60-80

3

120-160

20-30

150-200

maturity

200-300

30-50

250-400

Harvesting:

  • Mainly harvested at january- february
  • Red shiny berries are harvested
  • When pressed with finger the seed comes out.
  • Do not mix with over ripe or green berries
  • Maximum picking of 5 times
  • Time interval between picking is of 10 – 20 days.
  • 2 seed in a berry
  • Pea berry

Processing of Coffee:

Roasting of Coffee

Roasting coffee transforms the chemical and physical properties of green coffee beans into roasted coffee products. The roasting process is what produces the characteristic flavor of coffee by causing the green coffee beans to change in taste. Unroasted beans contain similar if not higher levels of acids, protein, sugar and caffeine.

 

Content Source: Bishal Shrestha

 

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