“Coffee – the favorite drink of the civilized world.”
- Coffea spp, rubiacea
- Derived from arabic word “quahweh” meaning wine.
- Later transformed to word coffee.
- Turkish – kahweh, French- café, Italian- kaffee, Dutch- Koffie
- The genus Coffea is native to tropical Africa (specifically having its origin in Ethiopia and Sudan) and Madagascar, the Comoros, Mauritius.
- In Nepal around 1960 Mr. Hira giri brought seeds of coffee from Burma in Aapchaur, Gulmi.
- Coffee grown worldwide can trace its heritage back centuries to the ancient coffee forests on the Ethiopian plateau.
- There, legend says the goat herder Kaldi first discovered the potential of these beloved beans.
- The story goes that that Kaldi discovered coffee after he noticed that after eating the berries from a certain tree, his goats became so energetic that they did not want to sleep at night.
- Kaldi reported his findings to the abbot of the local monastery, who made a drink with the berries and found that it kept him alert through the long hours of evening prayer.
- The abbot shared his discovery with the other monks at the monastery, and knowledge of the energizing berries began to spread.
Species of Coffee:
- Consist about 70 species but two are economically important in Nepal.
- Arabic coffee Coffea arabica and Robusta coffee Coffea canephora .
- Coffea arabica accounts for 75-80 percent of the world’s coffee production, while Coffea canephora accounts for about 20 percent.
Evergreen small tree or shrub
- The leaves range in colour from yellowish to dark green; the newly developed leaves of some varieties are bronzed, others purple-tinged
- dense clusters of white fragrant flowers,
- some species have flowers which are cream, even tinged with pink or purplish red and without fragrance.
- have opposite leaves and branches
Differences of Arabica & Robusta Coffee
Found in cafes and specially food shops.
Found in supermarkets in cans/jars of instant coffee. Better grades found in fine espresso blends.
Quality of Coffee
Produces superior quality coffees for the espresso coffee trade.
Produces less quality coffee quality for the instant coffee trade.
Range from sweet-soft to sharp-tangy-flavor full-bodied coffee, smooth in taste yet bright.
Often described as tasting grain-like, oatmeal, woody, astringent flavor. More bitter/sharper.
High due to labor insensitivity and difficult access high slopes.
Less expensive to maintain-lower production costs-some mechanical harvesting.
1 to 1.5 pounds of green coffee per year or 1500-3000 kg beans/ha.
2 to 3 pounds of green coffee a year, or 2300-4000 kg beans/ha.
75% of the world`s coffee production.
25% of total world`s coffee production.
Bean size & shape
Larger, slightly elongated and flat.
Smaller, rounded and domed.
Caffeine content of beans
0.8% to 1.4% average 1.2%
1.7% to 4% average 2%
Color before roasting
Green with silver/bluish shades.
Yellow to light brown.
Sometimes likened to blueberries.
Often described as raw peanuts.
Perfumery with fruity notes and sugary tones.
Often likened to brunt rubber.
Self-pollinating -autogamous – tetraploid
Cross pollination – allogamy – diploid
14 to 20 feet fully grown
32feet in height as a shrub
- Selection of mother plant
- Selection of beeries
- Harvesting of cherries
- Dipping in bucket
- Removal of pulp and mucilage substance
- Seed viability up to 4 months
- Preparation of bed (1m width, 20 cm height and required length).
- Planting of seed (10 cm * 5cm)
- Transplanting on poly bag
- Keep on shade
Propagation of Coffee by stem cuttings:
- Most commonly used form of vegetative propagation on an industrial scale.
- Internodes of orthotropic suckers are taken from selected clones and rooted in special nurseries (humified areas of a general nursery).
- Orthotropic stem cuttings grow into a well-shaped coffee plant.
- Plagiotropic stem cuttings only grow horizontally into coffee bushes.
- The internodal sections in the cuttings prepared develop their roots in a porous in a humid environment.
- The successfully hardened clones are transplanted into the field after 6-8 months in the nursery.
- Soil ph 6- 6.5 if less than 6 use dolomite lime 70% and gypsum 30%.
- Planted in triangular, square or contour system
- Planting distance 2.5m * 2m
- Planting pit: 45 cm*45 cm*45 cm
- Mix top soil, 5 kg fym, 250 gm neem cake or mustard oil cake and 200 gm lime.
Shade mangement : Ficus, Artocarpus, Gravelia, Alibizia
Age of tree (yrs)
Nutrients demand kg/ha/year
P 2O 5
- Mainly harvested at january- february
- Red shiny berries are harvested
- When pressed with finger the seed comes out.
- Do not mix with over ripe or green berries
- Maximum picking of 5 times
- Time interval between picking is of 10 – 20 days.
- 2 seed in a berry
- Pea berry
Processing of Coffee:
Roasting of Coffee
Roasting coffee transforms the chemical and physical properties of green coffee beans into roasted coffee products. The roasting process is what produces the characteristic flavor of coffee by causing the green coffee beans to change in taste. Unroasted beans contain similar if not higher levels of acids, protein, sugar and caffeine.
Content Source: Bishal Shrestha