Plum : Learn uses, cultivation technique, cultivars, manuring, training, diseases & pests management

Plum (Prunus domestica)

Introduction:

Plum is believed to be originated from: China

Wild plum is found in mid hill region of Nepal.

 High chilling cultivar of plum distributed in higher hills of the karnali and Dhaulagiri zones.

Uses:

  • Dessert purpose
  • Canning
  • Jam, jelly and wine making
  • Refreshing juice is also prepared

Botany:

  • Family: rosaceae
  • Sub family: prunoideae
  • Fruit: drupe

 

Species and cultivars

European Plum (Prunus domesticus)

  • Origin: North America
  • Vigorous tree i.e. tree height is 8-10 m
  • Twigs and under surface of leaves are covered with small hairs
  • Fruit shape round
  • Cultivated at higher elevation (13oo-2000m)
  • High chilling requirement (1000-1200 hrs)
  • Fruits born in spurs

Japanese Plum (Prunus salicinia)

  • Origin: china
  • Tree height is small
  • Hair are absent (glabrous)
  • Heart shaped fruit
  • Cultivated at lower heights (1000-1600m)
  • Low chilling requirement (700-1000hrs)
  • Fruits born in spurs and 1year old shoots

Cultivation Techniques:

Climate:

  • Need humid climate with cold winter and warm summer
  • European plum needs more than 1000 hrs of chilling where Japanese needs 400 hrs
  • Frost free spring are more suitable for plum cultivation
  • Annual rainfall of 600mm is adequate

Soil:

  • Grow in wide range of soils but deep fertile and well drained clay loam soil
  • Ph 5.5-6.5

Propagation & Rootstock:

Propagation:

  • Cleft grafting
  • Tongue grafting: February
  • Shield budding: April- May
  • Chip budding: February
  • Some plum varieties are propagated by hard wood cutting (100 ppm IBA)

Rootstock:

  • Seedling root stocks: seedlings of peach, plum, wild apricot are used for root stock purpose
  • For heavy soil root stock of apricot and plum is suitable
  • Kabul green cage root stock is suitable for planting in heavy and wet soils
  • Myrobalan B Plum (prunus cerasifera) is widely used for root stock purpose which is compatible with Japanese plum cultivars.

Planting:

  • One-year old grafted plum is transplanted in main field during dormant season
  • European plums: 2 years old are ready for transplanting.
  • Planting distance:5-6m

Manuring:

Age of Trees FYM (kg) Nitrogen(kg) P2O5 (kg) K2O (kg)
1 10 70 35 100
2 15 140 70 200

Calculate the required fertilizer amount here.

Training & Pruning:

  • Japanese pear: open Centre/vase system
  • European pear: modified Centre leader system

Harvesting & Yield:

  • For local market fruit is harvest at full maturity stage
  • For distant markets fruit is harvest at advance of proper maturity
  • Yield: 60-70 kg/tree/year

Insects & Pests:

  • San Jose scale
  • Plum fruit moth:
  • Larvae bore into developing fruit, ultimately fruit drop and rot
  • Spray malathion for control (1ml/lit of water)
  • Defoliating beetle:
  • Serious pest of peach attack during rainy season
  • It is nocturnal in habit
  • Can be controlled by using light trap.

Diseases:

  • Shot holes (stigmina carpohila)
  • Fungal disease
  • Dark brown spots appear on leaves
  • Abscission of diseased area results in short holes
  • Spray captan (0.2%) for spray before leaf fall

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